Babylon is the
Greek variant of the Akkadian Babilu,
an ancient city in Mesopotamia (modern Al Hillah, Iraq). It was the ‘holy city’
of Babylonia from early times, and the seat of the Neo-Babylonian empire from 612 BC. In
the Hebrew Bible, the name appears as Babel, interpreted by popular
etymology to mean ‘confusion’. Akkadian bāb-ilû means ‘Gate of God’,
translating the Sumerian Kadingirra.
BkXII:Chap4:Sec2 The reference is to Psalm 137 ‘By the waters of Babylon.’
BkXVIII:Chap3Sec5 The abhorred city of
BkXXII:Chap 21:Sec1 BkXXXII:Chap16:Sec1 The
tower of Babel is referred to in Genesis
XI, where the languages of the world are confused.
BkXXIV:Chap7:Sec1 BkXXX:Chap2:Sec2 Alexander was in
Babylon in 331BC and returned to die there in 323.
BkXXX:Chap9:Sec1 A reference to Daniel VI:16.
Elisa Napoleone, Princess of Piombino
In 1825, she married Philippe, Comte
Camerata-Passioneï de Mazzoleni. They separated in 1832.
Her daughter in Rome in 1829.
Dionysus the Greek god of the vine, the Roman Bacchus, was
the son of Semele by Zeus-Jupiter.
The Bacchantes or Maenads were the band of savage women followers who attended
Maria-Anna (Élisa) Bonaparte, Madame d’
1777-1820. A younger sister of Napoleon. She married Pascal-Félix
Bacciochi a Corsican officer, in 1797. She was established as a member of the Imperial family of the First French
Empire in 1804. In 1805, Napoleon named her Duchess of Lucca and Princess of
Pimbino. Her separation from her husband was seen favorably by Napoleon who
named her Grand Duchess of Tuscany in 1809. The position had been previously
vacant since the abdication of Ferdinand III, Grand Duke of Tuscany in 1801 and
Tuscany had been incorporated to the Kingdom of Etruria until 1807. Her husband
soon rejoined her however. Elisa remained Duchess of Tuscany until 1814. Then
Ferdinand III was restored to his throne. She spent the later years of her life
in seclusion and died in Trieste.
used her influence on Chateaubriand’s behalf in 1801.
Reported on Napoleon’s satisfaction with
his meeting with Chateaubriand.
Her letter introducing Chateaubriand to Murat.
Continued to use her influence on Chateaubriand’s behalf in 1803/4.
She reproaches Chateaubriand for resigning in 1804. She placates Napoleon.
She extends her protection to him following his resignation.
Duchess of Lucca from 1805.
She was educated at Saint-Cyr
until 1792 when the school was closed.
1561-1626. English philosopher, essayist, courtier, jurist,
and statesman, his writings include The Advancement of Learning (1605)
and the Novum Organum (1620), in which he proposed a theory of
scientific knowledge based on observation and experiment that came to be known
as the inductive method.He was
knighted in 1603, created Baron Verulam
in 1618, and created Viscount St Albans
in 1621; both peerage titles becoming extinct upon his death.
A town in the district of
Bayreuth, in Bavaria, Germany it is situated on the river Weisser Main, in the Fichtelgebirge, 13 km northeast of Bayreuth.
BkXXXVIII:Chap6:Sec1 Chateaubriand there
2nd June 1833.
An arm of the Arctic Ocean bounded by Baffin
Island in the west, Greenland in the east, and Ellesmere Island in the north,
it connects to the Atlantic through Davis Strait, and to the Arctic through
several narrow channels of Nares Strait. It is a northwestern extension of the North-Atlantic
and Labrador Sea.
normally filled with icebergs.
The capital of
Iraq, on the River Tigris, built by the Caliph Mansur
in the 8th century, was a centre of commerce, learning and religion until
sacked by the Mongols in 1258. Part of the Ottoman Empire from 1534, and still so in Chateaubriand’s time.
BkIII:Chap8:Sec1 Mentioned. A symbol of Eastern luxury.
Pyotr Ivanovich, Prince
1765-1812. A Russian General during the French
Revolutionary and Napoleonic Wars. He fought under Field Marshal
in the Italian and Swiss campaigns of 1798–99 and at
Austerlitz, Eylau, and Friedland. In 1808 he
captured the Aland
Islands from Sweden; in 1809 he fought against the Turks in
the Russo-Turkish War of 1806–12; and in 1812 he commanded an army against
Napoleon and was mortally wounded at Borodino.
BkXXI:Chap3:Sec1 At Borodino.
Bagration, Ekaterina Pavlovna Skavronksy, Princess
1783-1857. She was the wife of Prince
Bagration (married 1800). She married Lord Hobart in 1830.
Her niece, Countess Samoilova.
The modern Baia, opposite Pozzuoli
on the Bay of Pozzuoli,
once the fashionable bathing place of the Romans, owed its name, in legend, to
Baios, the navigator of Odysseus. The
Emperors built magnificent palaces there. There was a causeway attributed to Hercules. Part now lies beneath the sea due
to subsidence. It was a notoriously loose place for sexual intrigue.
Caligula’s building work there.
Chateaubriand visited in 1828.
26:Sec1 Countess Walewska returned to
nearby Naples after a three day
visit to Elba in 1815.
Madame Récamier at Naples
1777-1824. An impoverished military man who published
various Bonapartist tracts, some opposing Chateaubriand, who nevertheless
assisted him and his wife.
The Battle of Bailén (Andalucia) was a
series of clashes between the Spanish regular army, operating in conjunction
with guerrilla formation, under Generals Francisco Castaños and Theodor von
Reding and the French commanded by General Pierre Dupont, between July 18 and
July 22 1808, as a part of the Peninsular War.The Spanish victory at Bailén
signalled to the armies of Europe that the French were not invincible - a fact
that persuaded the Austrians to wage a new war against Napoleon.
1736-1793. French astronomer and politician, his works on
astronomy and on the history of science (notably the Essai sur la théorie
des satellites de Jupiter) were distinguished both for scientific interest
and literary elegance and earned him membership in the
of Sciences, and the
of Inscriptions. He was elected
(1789) from Paris to the
States-General and was chosen president of the National Assembly. Mayor of
from 1789 to 1791, he lost favour with the popular element. He permitted the
National Guard to fire on a demonstrating crowd (July 17, 1791). Bailly withdrew from Paris,
but in 1793 he was seized, taken back to Paris,
convicted of having contrived the July massacre, and guillotined.
Elected as Mayor of Paris after the fall of the Bastille
in July 1789.
He was one of those who met and harangued the King at the Hôtel de Ville on the 17th July 1789.
He again harangued the King, on the
6th October 1789, at the Hôtel de Ville after the invasion of Versailles on the 5th which resulted in
the mob escorting the Royal family to Paris.
The reference is to
play Bajazet of 1672, which concerns
Bajazet the brother of Sultan Murad IV (1612-1640) whom the Sultan had executed
in 1635. The play is set in the Seraglio and involves complex intrigues,
suicide and murder.
see Duc de Guise
(Balagni), Renée de Clermont d’Amboise, Madame de
d. 1595 She was the wife of Jean de Montluc (1560-1603), seigneur
de Balagny, at first a zealous member of the League, who made his submission to
Henri IV, and received from him the principality of Cambrai and the baton
of a Marshal of France.
(Balashev, Balascheff), Alexander Dmitriyevich
general and statesman, from 1 January 1810 he was a member of the newly
established State Council. In June the same year he became the Minister of
Police. In 1812, during Napoleon’s Invasion of Russia, Balashov was present in
the front-line army stationed in Vilnius (Vilna). After La Grande Armée crossed
the frontier on June 12, Balashov was dispatched to deliver the Emperor's
letter to Napoleon. He participated in the organization of the People's Militia
ополчение) and was a
member of the extraordinary committee choosing the commander-in-chief of the
He met Napoleon in Vilna in June 1812.
Anne de Caumont-La Force, Comtesse d’
1758-1842. Mistress of the
Comte de Provence (Louis XVIII) before 1789, she shared the start of his exile
lived in England before returning to the south of France at the end of the Consulate. Returning to
Paris under the Restoration she was granted a pension by
Louis of 12,000 francs.
BkXXV:Chap4:Sec1 A favourite of
Father of Pierre-Simon. A
Took over the printing rights to Le
Génie in 1802.
1776-1847. A French philosopher, he was a frequenter of Mme Récamier’s salon. He was elected to
the Académie française in 1842. He is regarded as the precursor of both liberal
Catholicism and Romanticism. In Palingénésie
(1827–32) he historically documented his belief in cyclical cultural rebirth.
In addition to essays, Ballanche wrote didactic fiction, including a
Christianized Antigone (1813) and L’Homme sans nom (1820).
A printer in Lyons in 1802 in his father’s
Chateaubriand met Ballanche again in Lyons
in May 1803.
His letter (17th September 1803)
announcing Madame de Beaumont’s pending arrival
Chateaubriand on his trip to Mont-Blanc in 1805.
Travels to meet Madame de Chateaubriand
in Venice in 1806.
His comment on Madame Récamier’s bankruptcy in 1806.
His comment on Madame Récamier’s portrait of 1802.
His associations with Lyons and friendship
He arrives in Dieppe in July 1830.
Mentioned in 1831.
A reference to his Essays on Social
Palingenesis which was part-published but remained unfinished. Palingenesis was a term by which
Ballanche referred to the successive regenerations of society, and he
incorporated a progressive or evolutionary vision of Christianity in his work
even as he insisted that Christianity was immutable.
The largest city in Maryland
lies at the mouth of the Patapsco
Established in 1729 it was named after the Barons Baltimore, one of whom George
Calvert (c1580-1632) established Maryland. It contains the USA’s first Roman
Catholic cathedral (1806-1821).
sailed with a party of seminarists for there in April 1791.
Chateaubriand arrived on Saturday the
9th July, 1791. The Saint-Marie seminary of Baltimore, from which
the first Catholic diocese in the U.S. was founded (entrusted to Mgr John
Caroll, an English Jesuit) was founded a few weeks later. It was the root of
the Catholic American clergy, for half a century, and gave it a French
Description of Baltimore.
Chateaubriand left Baltimore for New-York.
c. 1421-1491. Correctly Cardinal La Balu, he was a French
statesman, and a cardinal of the Roman Catholic Church. A trusted adviser of
the French king Louis XI, he saved Paris
for the king during the revolt of the League of the Public Weal (1465).
Subsequently he conspired with Charles the Bold of Burgundy against Louis and
arranged the meeting of the two rulers at Péronne (1468), where Charles made
Louis a prisoner. After his release Louis held Balue prisoner from 1469 to
1480, when the pope intervened. The legend that Balue was kept in an iron cage
is unproved. Balue went to Rome,
but in 1484 he returned temporarily to France
as a papal legate.
A town in Bavaria Germany, it is located in Upper
Franconia on the river Regnitz, close to its confluence with the
river Main. BkXXXVIII:Chap7:Sec1
Chateaubriand passed through on the night of 1st/2nd of June 1833.
Chateaubriand passed through again in late September 1833.
Ban and Arrière-ban
In French and Medieval English,
whereby all that held lands of the crown, (except some privileged officers and
citizens,) were summoned to meet at a certain place in order to serve the king
in his wars, either personally, or by proxy. Also the vassals so summoned.
Napoleon uses an ancient and monarchical
term for levying troops.
1761-1835. A famous French actor, he was one of a whole
family of Baptistes who played all the parts. He was the elder son, but his
father, younger brother, mother and wife all acted. Nicolas soon obtained public favour, especially in
La Martellière’s Robert, chef de brigands, and as Count Almaviva
in Bèaumarchais’ La Mere coupable. As he
grew older his special forté lay in noble fathers. After a brilliant career of
thirty-five years of uninterrupted service, he retired in 1828. But, after the
revolution of 1830, when the Théâtre Français was in dire straits, the brothers
Baptiste came to the rescue, reappeared on the stage and helped to restore its
Napoleon made his acquaintance.
He was valet de chambre and then plain valet to
In Prague in late September 1833.
The town is on the River Aube east of Troyes.
Napoleon fighting there in 1814.
Césarine d’Houdetot, Baronne de
1794-1877. The wife of Claude-Ignace
Chateaubriand met her when she was a child of seven.
Claude-Ignace Brugière, Baron de
1745-1814. He was of a noble family of the
Arrested March 1794 but survived the Terror. Prefect of the Aude under the
Consulate, he was made prefect of Léman in
1803. He was charged with the surveillance of the ‘Coppet group’ around Madame de Staël, a task he carried out with tact, and
befriended the group. He was made a Baron by Napoleon
in 1810 but his laxity caused its revocation the same year, and he retired to
his château to avoid compromising his son’s career.
Amable-Guillaume Prosper Brugière, Baron de
1782-1866. The son of Claude-Ignace.
He had a long affair with Madame de Staël.
On Napoleon’s return he held the
prefecture of Nantes, which he immediately resigned. At the Second Restoration
he was made Councillor of State and Secretary-General of the Ministry of the
Interior. After becoming Director-General of Indirect Taxes, he was created in 1819
a Peer of France and was prominent among the Liberals. After the revolution of
July 1830, he was appointed ambassador to Turin, and in 1835 to St Petersburg.
Throughout Louis Philippe’s reign he supported the government; and after the
fall of the monarchy, in February 1848, withdrew from political life and
retired to his country seat in Auvergne. Shortly before his retirement he had
been made grand cross of the Legion of Honour. Barante's Histoire des ducs
de Bourgogne de la maison de Valois, which appeared in a series of volumes
between 1824 and 1828, procured him immediate admission to the Académie
fl: 1170-1190. An
architect, he designed the Grand
Canal and early
bridges (1181) in Venice and erected the two columns (1172) from Constantinople in the Piazzetta.
His work on the Campanile. The first tower was completed in 1173. It was
rebuilt after its collapse in 1902.
Fl: 1820-1860. He was a French bookseller and publisher.
Mentioned in July 1830.
or Barberini, La
An Italian dancer, supposedly the only woman Frederick the Great ever showed
an interest in (according to Voltaire and others). She was the wife of a minor
1767-1794. An advocate, born at Marseilles, of which
he became town-clerk, he came to Paris ‘a young Spartan’ and became leader of the Girondins
in the French Revolution; he represented Marseilles in the Constituent Assembly
and the Convention; declared an enemy of the people, and forced to flee, he
mistook an approaching company for Jacobins, drew his pistol and shot himself,
but the shot miscarried; he was captured and guillotined.
Anna Laetitia Aikin
Children’s Writer, Dissenter, Editor, Educationalist, Essayist, Feminist,
Literary Critic, Literary Historian, Poet, Prose Writer, Reformer, Teacher.
Mentioned as a popular authoress.
of Habsburg, Archduchess
1539-1572. She married
d’Este in December 1565.
She was an Italian singer, in Rome
largest city in Spain, it is the capital of Catalonia and the province with the
same name. It is located in the comarca of Barcelonès, along the Mediterranean
coast between the mouths of the rivers Llobregat and Besòs.
In October 1821 there was an outbreak of yellow fever there. The French sent
medical aid but also used it as a pretext to deploy troops along the Rousillon
frontier. The Spanish liberal party denounced this cordon sanitaire.’
The headquarters of the Sous-Prefecture des Départements
Alpes-de-Haute-Provence, is situated some 44miles east of Gap in the Ubaye
valley. The small town lies in mountain country, surrounded by fruit fields and
meadows. The roads to the south lead over the well-known passes of Col
d’Allos, Col de la Cayolle and Col de la Bonnete; the latter, 9,196ft above
sea-level, is the highest pass in the Alps.
Napoleon’s arrest warrant was signed there, dated 6th August 1794.
de Tolly, Prince Michael Andreas
1761-1818 A Russian field marshal, of Scottish descent, he
gained prominence in the Napoleonic Wars, became minister of war in 1810, and
commanded the Russian forces against Napoleon in 1812. His policy of continuous
retreat into the heart of Russia
and his defeat at Smolensk (August
17–18) resulted in his being replaced by Kutuzov,
but his successor, recognizing the soundness of the strategy, followed the same
policy. After Kutuzov’s death (1813) he again commanded the Russian forces and
distinguished himself at Leipzig and in
the capture of Paris.
Napoleon’s comment on him in June 1812.
Toppled by Court intrigue.
A town in the Hautes-Pyrénées, known for its mineral waters.
Chateaubriand there in 1807.
Charles-Louis-François de Paule de
1738-1819. Last Keeper of the Seals under Louis XVI. He emigrated in 1789.
Chateaubriand wrote to him on behalf of Hingant
(Barrère) De Vieuzac, Bertrand
1755-1841. A member of the Revolutionary National Assembly
and of the Convention, he became a radical, voting for the execution of Louis XVI. He was a member of, and often the
spokesman for, the Committee of Public Safety, the body that ruled France
for a time during the Revolutionary Wars. When the moderates in the Convention
turned against Maximilien Robespierre,
one of the leaders of the committee and perpetrator of the Reign of Terror (June,
1794), Barère deserted his colleague. Nevertheless, Barère was imprisoned for
his role in the Terror. Escaping from prison, he remained in hiding for several
years but reappeared as a secret agent of Emperor Napoleon I. Banished (1815) after the
Bourbon restoration, he returned in the reign of Louis Philippe. He left memoirs.
2 His flippancy regarding the guillotine.
met him in 1792.
His role as spokesman.
His arrest in 1795.
d’Amoncourt, Paul, Marquis de Branges
French ambassador to
England from 1677
to 1688, his dispatches to Louis XIV have been useful to historians of the
period, though an expected bias may be present. With the conquest of England by
William of Orange, Louis XIV's most implacable enemy, Barillon was expelled
from England and war soon commenced between the two kingdoms.
BkXXX:Chap11:Sec1 His despatches from
He was a lawyer of Rheims,
A pamphlet of his on the Coronation (unknown.)
1797-1833. An engineer
he was Henri V’s principal teacher. He remained in
Bohemia when Baron
ceased to be the Prince’s tutor, and won a reputation as a mineralogist.
BkXXXVII:Chap3:Sec1 Chateaubriand takes
BkXLI:Chap5:Sec1 Fallen from grace in late 1833.
Paul François Jean Nicholas, Vicomte de
1755-1829. A French revolutionary, of a noble
family, he joined the Jacobins in the Revolution and was a member of the
Convention. He participated in the reprisals against counter-revolutionaries in
Toulon after the recapture of the city from
the British (1793). Having turned against the revolutionary dictator Maximilien
Robespierre, Barras was a leader of
the coup against him on 9 Thermidor (July
27, 1794). As commander of Paris,
he suppressed a royalist uprising on 13 Vendémiaire (Oct. 5, 1795) by turning the troops over to a
young officer, Napoleon Bonaparte.
Subsequently, Barras became (1795) a member of the Directory. He was notorious
for his corruption and ostentation. During Napoleon’s coup of 18 Brumaire (Nov. 9, 1799), Barras consented to
resign from the Directory, thus contributing to Napoleon’s success. After the
coup, he lost prominence.
One of the Representatives who ordered the siege of Toulon in 1793.
A friend of Josephine de
Beauharnais in 1795.
Appointed Director of the Paris
armed forces and the interior in 1795. He witnessed Napoleon’s marriage in
1796. He effectively gave Napoleon command in Italy
as Josephine’s dowry.
Apparently opposed to Napoleon on the latter’s return to France
A village in the Alpes de
Haute Provence in the south of France, it is about 30 kilometres from Digne.
BkXXIII:Chap1:Sec1 Napoleon passed through in March 1815 during his return
Commander of the 96th Infantry Regiment (Line)
A member of the commission which tried the Duc d’Enghien in 1804.
Camille Hyacinthe Odilon
1791-1873. French political leader. An opponent
of the Bourbon restoration, he aided the July Revolution (1830), but he was
disappointed in the bourgeois monarchy of
Philippe. He became a leader of the parliamentary
opposition to the July Monarchy and participated in banquets used to spread
propaganda against the conservative government. He was a moderate in the
February Revolution of 1848, which deposed Louis Philippe and established a
republic. During the presidency of Louis Napoleon (later Emperor
III), he briefly headed (1849) the cabinet but was dismissed when Louis
Napoleon replaced his legislative advisers with a personal cabinet. Under the
Third Republic he was (1872–73) president of the council of state. Some of his
writings were collected as Mémoires posthumes (1875–76).
BkXXIII:Chap2:Sec1 A Royalist at one time.
BkXXXII:Chap1:Sec1 Involved in the July Revolution of 1830.
BkXXXII:Chap6:Sec1 Appointed secretary of the Municipal Commission on
BkXXXII:Chap11:Sec1 Sent by
Lafayette to the Chamber of Deputies.
BkXXXIII:Chap3:Sec1 Appointed as one of the
three Commissioners charged with escorting
X to Cherbourg in 1830.
Bécu, Comtesse du
of the mistresses of Louis XV. Although
she exercised little political influence at the French court, her unpopularity
contributed to the decline of the prestige of the crown in the early 1770s. She
was born the illegitimate daughter of lower-class parents. After a convent
education, she worked as a shop assistant, under the name Jeanne Vaubernier, in
a fashion house in Paris. While
there she became the mistress of Jean du Barry, a Gascon nobleman who had made
a fortune as a war contractor. He introduced her into Parisian high society,
and her beauty captivated a succession of nobly born lovers before she
attracted Louis XV’s attention in 1768. She could not qualify as official royal
mistress (maîtresse en titre), a
position vacant since the death of Madame de Pompadour
in 1764, unless she was married to a noble. Hence, Du Barry arranged a nominal
marriage between Jeanne and his brother, Guillaume du Barry; in April 1769 she
joined Louis XV’s court. The Comtesse immediately joined the faction that brought
about the downfall of Louis XV’s powerful minister of foreign affairs, the Duke
de Choiseul, in December 1770; and
she then supported the drastic judicial reforms instituted by her friend the
chancellor René-Nicolas de Maupeou, in
1771. She spent much of her time on the estates that Louis had given her near
Louveciennes, where she earned a reputation as a generous patron of the arts.
On the death of Louis XV (May 1774) and the accession of Louis XVI, Madame du Barry was banished to a
nunnery; from 1776 until the outbreak of the Revolution she lived on her
estates with the Duke de Brissac. In 1792 she made several trips to
London, probably to give financial aid to French émigrés.
Condemned as a counter-revolutionary by the Revolutionary Tribunal of Paris in
December 1793, she was guillotined.
1795-1863. A liberal lawyer, he was Minister of Justice
1831-1834, a Peer of France, and a Senator of the Second
His advice sought in July 1830.
Justice Minister in 1832.
1796-1867. A French poet from Marseilles
he published a weekly verse satire (27th
March 1831 to 31st April
1832), with his compatriot Méry, under the title Nemesis, prompted by a line of Chénier’s. It was directed at the
Legitimists as well as those who profited from the new regime. The lines
addressing Chateaubriand were from 6th
November 1831. The 52 poems were published in 1832. Lamartine responded to them in July 1831,
and the government.
Chateaubriand writes to him.
1716-1795. A French writer and numismatist who while studying for the priesthood, which he
intended to join, devoted much attention to oriental languages, and the study
of classical antiquities, particularly in the department of numismatics. In
1744 he went to Paris with a letter of introduction to M. Gros de Boze,
perpetual secretary of the Académie des inscriptions et belles-lettres and
keeper of the royal collection of medals. He became assistant to M. de Boze. In
1753, upon the death of de Boze, he succeeded to the post and remained in this
position until the Revolution. In 1755 he accompanied the, French ambassador,
M. de Stainville, afterwards duc de Choiseul,
to Italy, where he spent three years in archaeological research. After the fall of his friend Choiseul (1770), Barthélemy followed him into exile at
Chanteloup, near Amboise,
where unlike the abbés de cour he was busily engaged in polishing his
elaborate literary productions.
1789, after the publication of his Voyage du jeune Anacharsis en Grèce dans
le milieu du IVe siècle, he was elected a member of the French Academy.
During the Revolution Barthélemy was arrested (September, 1793) as an
aristocrat and confined in a prison for a few days. The Committee of Public
Safety, however, were no sooner informed by the duchess of Choiseul of the
arrest than they gave orders for his immediate release, and in 1793 he was
nominated librarian of the Bibliothèque Nationale. He refused this post but
resumed his old functions as keeper of medals, and enriched the national
collection by many valuable accessions. Having been despoiled of his fortune by
the Revolution, he died in poverty.
Chateaubriand met him in Paris
Two brothers, they were clerks to the Comte de La Panouse. François (1796-1881) financed
the creation, from 1835, of the Conservatoire of Geneva, and was involved in
industrial and financial projects during the July Monarchy and the Second
Daniele, le Père
1635-1685. He was an
BkXL:Chap1:Sec1 He was born in
1727-1815. A Florentine engraver, he studied in
and then Venice under Joseph
Wagner. After a visit to Rome he returned to Venice and started his own
business, and in 1764 left for London to be the King's Engraver, after being
contracted by the Keeper of the King's Drawings and Medals. This contract ended
in 1767, which is also when he began publishing colour prints, and continued to
work with the Keeper of the King’s Drawings. His reputation was such that he
was one of the five foreign original members of the Royal
Academy in 1768. In 1802 he went to
Lisbon as the Director of the
Academy at the invitation of the
Prince Regent and died there in 1815.
His engraving of Madame Récamier in 1802.
1739-1823. An American naturalist, born in Philadelphia he was the son of John
Bartram. He is known chiefly for his Travels (1791), in which he
describes his journey (1773-77) through the Carolinas, Georgia,
and Florida and areas to the
west. His book vividly portrays the plants and wildlife of the country and
lists 215 native birds, the most complete list of that time. His influence is
seen in the works of Wordsworth, Coleridge, Chateaubriand, and other writers
who found his book an unexcelled source of descriptions of the American
wilderness and its inhabitants.
c330-379. A hermit before becoming Bishop of Caesarea in Cappadocia
from 370, he was a leading opponent of the Arian heresy.
Chateaubriand refers to the Letters.
II, the Bulgar-Slayer
Emperor from 976.
Not Basil III as stated.
St. Basiliscus of Comana was from Asia Minor
(Turkish), a bishop, he was martyred by beheading in 312.
The city and canton, of northern Switzerland,
it borders on France
The canton is bounded in the north by the Rhine
River (which becomes navigable in
the canton) and in the south by the Jura Mountains. Its
inhabitants are German-speaking and Protestant. The canton has been divided
since 1833 into two independent half cantons, Basel-Land
generally comprising the rural districts, with its capital at Liestal, and Basel-Stadt virtually coextensive with the city of Basel.
Chateaubriand there in August 1832. He had previously passed through in July
1826 on his way from Lausanne to
Chateaubriand arrived in Basel on the 17th of May 1833. The inn on the
banks of the Rhine, the Drei Könige,
the Three Kings, was first mentioned in 1681. The present building dares from
1844, when it re-opened as the French Les
Chateaubriand alludes to the schism in the Canton of Basel in 1833 whereby the
Bourgeois opposed ‘Regeneration’ while the countryside favoured the new
L’Ermite, Saint Basilus the Hermit
c555-620 A hermit and miracles
worker, born in Limoges, France. He became a monk in Reims,
and then entered a hermitage. He spent forty years on a hill overlooking Reims.
Gardener at Saint-Servan
Signed the death certificate of Chateaubriand’s mother.
Duc de, See Maret.
François Baron de, Marshal of France
1579-1646. Under Henry
IV he distinguished himself in the army and as a courtier, and after
Henry’s death remained loyal to the queen, Marie de' Medici, during her
regency. Subsequently he was ambassador to Spain,
England, and Switzerland,
and fought against the Huguenots in 1621-22 and 1627-28. Because of his opposition
to Cardinal Richelieu and his
alleged part in an intrigue he was imprisoned (1631) in the Bastille until
after the cardinal's death (1643). During his captivity he wrote his Mémoires.
quotes an edited extract from the Mémoires.
See the Memoirs. The young widow was
named Anna-Esther Percherstoris, the date was 1604.
Quoted. See the Memoirs.
1800-1870. He succeeded Carrel at the National in 1834, before
becoming Foreign Minister under Cavaignac in 1848.
At the Tuileries on 29th July 1830.
At the Palais-Royal on the 31st of
On May 5, 1789,
the King convened the Estates General to hear their complaints, but the
assembly of the Third Estate, representing the citizens of the town, soon broke
away and formed the Constituent National Assembly. On June 20, the deputies of
the Third Estate took the oath of the Jeu de Paume ‘to not separate until the
Constitution had been established.’ The Deputies’ opposition was echoed by
public opinion. The people of Paris
decided to march on the Bastille, a state prison that symbolized the absolutism
and arbitrariness of the Ancien Regime.
The storming of the Bastille, on July
14, 1789, immediately became a symbol of historical dimensions; it
was proof that power no longer resided in the King or in God, but in the
people, in accordance with the theories developed by the Philosophes of the
BkV:Chap10:Sec1 BkV:Chap14:Sec1 Mentioned.
the Bretons imprisoned in the Bastille in July 1788 and released in the
September when Loménie de Brienne was
dismissed, were the Comte de Trémargat,
the Chevalier de Guer, and the Marquis de la Rouërie.
Chateaubriand witnessed the taking of the Bastille on the 14th July 1789.
The impact of the Bastille’s fall on the Court.
Washington showed his guests a key from
The cleared site in 1814.
On November 15, 1591, during
the troubles of the League, the castle was surrendered to the forces of the
Duke of Mayenne. It was returned to Royal
hands on March 22, 1594,
when Du Bourg, who had been given command of the castle, capitulated to Marshal
of Parliament for Cirencester, he was an opponent of Walpole.
The earl associated with the poets and
scholars of the time. He is described in
Sterne’s Letters to Eliza; was the
subject of a graceful reference on the part of Burke speaking in the House of
Commons; and the letters which passed between him and Pope are published in Pope's
Works, vol. viii. (London, 1872).
BkXXVII:Chap6:Sec1 See Letters
to Eliza: March 1767.
1762-1834. A British statesman, he was Member of Parliament
for Cirencester from 1783 until he succeeded to the earldom in 1794. Mainly as
a result of his friendship with William Pitt,
he was a lord of the Admiralty (1783-89), a lord of the Treasury (1789-91), and
commissioner of the Board of Control for India
(1793-1802). Returning to office with Pitt in May 1804, he became Master of the
Mint and was President of the Board of Trade and Master of the Mint during the
ministries of the Duke of Portland and Spencer Perceval, vacating these posts
in June 1812 to become secretary for war and the colonies under the Earl of
Liverpool, until Liverpool resigned in
1827 and he deserves some credit for improving the conduct of the Peninsular
War. As Secretary for the Colonies, Bathurst
was closely concerned with the abolition of the slave trade. He was Lord
President of the council in the government of the Duke of Wellington from 1828 to 1830, favouring
Roman Catholic emancipation but opposing the Reform Bill of 1832. It was he who
took over as interim Foreign Secretary after Castlereagh’s suicide.
He spoke in the House of Lords on 18th
May 1817 opposing a motion concerning Napoleon’s complaints about
condition on St Helena.
A portrait of him.
Temporarily Foreign Secretary after Castlereagh’s suicide.
d 1824 aged 16. The ‘young Englishwoman’ mentioned was a
daughter of Sir Benjamin Bathurst, (former Ambassador Extraordinary to
who vanished mysteriously at Perleberg in Prussia
in November 1809, aged 26) who drowned in the Tiber in
March 1824 when out riding.
1792-1862. Editor of Le Temps, Prefect of Police (1830), he was
a Deputy (1830-139 and 1840-1846), Counsellor of State, and Director-General of
Bridges, Roads and Mines briefly in 1830.
He defended the freedom of the Press in 1830. When the Police commissioner
arrived to seize the news-presses of Le
Temps, he locked the doors and read the Penal Code, enshrining public
freedoms, from the window to the crowd below.
Active on the 29th of July 1830.
Named as Commissioner for the Interior of the Municipal Commission, 29th July 1830.
He drafted the original proposition regarding the banishment of Charles X and
(Baudain), Nicolas-Thomas, Captain
a career in merchant shipping, and in the navy during the American War of
Independence he captained ships taking Austrian botanists to the Indian and
Pacific Oceans. In October 1800 he was selected to lead an expedition to map
the coast of Australia. He had two ships, Le Géographe and Le
Naturaliste (Captain Hamelin), and was accompanied by nine zoologists and
botanists, including Jean Baptiste Leschenault de la Tour. He reached Australia
in May 1801, and in April 1802 met Matthew Flinders, also engaged in charting
the coastline, in Encounter Bay. Baudin then stopped at the British colony at Sydney
for supplies. In Sydney he bought a new ship — Casurina — named after
the wood it was made from. From there he sent home Le Naturaliste, which
had on board all of the specimens that had been discovered by Baudin and his
crew. He then headed for Tasmania, before continuing north to Timor. Baudin
then sailed for home, stopping at Mauritius, where he died of tuberculosis.t-two year-old in 1800.
1786-1858. Lieutenant-Colonel, he was aide-de-camp to Soult. He was aide-de-camp to Bessières in Moscow
in 1812. Put on half-pay after Waterloo
he was re-appointed in 1816. He wrote his Études
sur Napoleon (1841).
Bauffremont-Courtenay, Théodore-Paul-Alexandre, Prince de
Aide du camp to the Duc de Berry,
then the Duc de Bordeaux,
he had been a Lieutenant-Colonbel of Cavalry, resigning in 1830.
BkXXXIX:Chap2:Sec1 He married
Élisabeth de Montmorency in 1819.
Linz September 1833.
BkXLI:Chap6:Sec1 At Bustehrad,
Prague, 27th of September 1833.
Bauffremont-Courtenay, Anne-Élisabeth-Laurence de Montmorency,
1802-1860. The wife of Théodore,
and daughter of the Duc de Montmorency.
BkXXXIX:Chap2:Sec1 She agreed
to accompany the Duchess de Berry to Prague if her husband might join her.
arrival in Venice in September
Travelling via Linz to Prague
in September 1833.
At Bustehrad, Prague, 27th of
The battle fought on May 21, 1813,
resulted in a French victory by Napoléon over Prussia under Blücher
and Russia under Wittgenstein.
Maximilian I Joseph, Prince Elector, then King of
of Bavaria 1895-1825, his second marriage, in 1797, was to Karoline von Baden
Ludwig I, King of
1786-1868. Son of Maximilian,
he was King of Bavaria 1825-1848.
1774-1848. Professor at the Law Faculty and a Paris Deputy,
he held the Police Post for only 48 hours in July 1830.
Appointed to the Police Department by the Municipal Commission, 29th July 1830.
Pierre du Terrail, Chevalier de
The French knight and national hero, was renowned
for his bravery. He has become the outstanding type of chivalry and was known
as the knight sans peur et sans reproche (without fear and without
Page to the Duke of Savoy in his youth.
Quoted from the Memoirs of Martin Du
He was present at the Battle of Ravenna in 1512. His biography composed by Le Loyal Serviteur his secretary Jacques
de Mailles is dated 1527.
The reference is to Bayard as reported in Le
Loyal Serviteur. His mother was Hélène Alleman, of a noble family, whose
brother Laurent was the Bishop of Grenoble.
1647-1706. The French philosopher and critic, is considered
the progenitor of 18th-century rationalism, he compiled the famous Dictionnaire
historique et critique (1697) and championed the cause of religious
His criticism of Spinoza’s pantheism
1755-c1811/13. Elected to the National Convention
(1792-1795) as a deputy for the department of Bouches-du-Rhône; he served on
the committees for commerce and legislation; and voted for the death sentence
at the trial of Louis XVI, demanding that the king be executed within 24 hours;
appointed a member of the Comité de
sûreté générale (Committee of General Security) (14 Sep 1793 - 1 Sep 1794)
he served as President of the National Convention (22 Oct 1793 - 6 Nov 1793).
Proscribed after the assassination
attempt on Napoleon (24 Dec
1800), he went into exile in Switzerland,
returning in 1803 and died in obscurity.
A London printer
who lodged Chateaubriand and printed the Essai. Cox and Baylis were
located at 75 Great Queen Street,
in Holborn, near Lincoln Inn’s Fields. Edward Cox owned the printing press used
by Benjamin Franklin when he
worked for Watts, which was sold to Philadelphia’s
Philosophical Society in 1830. Cox and Baylis specialised in French works and
the printing house was a meeting place for émigrés. They also printed Cobbett’s work, and were later printers to
the Royal Asiatic Society.
Contracted to print the Essai,
subject to a promise of reimbursement for poor sales.
Printing suspended, and Chateaubriand moves lodging.
Peltier suggests Chateaubriand continues writing the Essai.
The Essai was printed in 1797 and
appeared on the 18th of March.
A town in south-west France,
at the confluence of the Rivers Adour and Nive, it is the chief port of the
Basque country. (Formerly famous for it sword and knife making, the bayonet was
developed there in the 17thcentury)
Chateaubriand’s father in transit there.
Chateaubriand there in 1807.
The Treaty of Bayonne of May 1808 sent the Spanish royal family into exile and
brought Joseph to the throne of Spain.
A town in northern Bavaria,
Germany, on the
River in a valley between the Frankish
Alb and the Fichtelgebirge, it is the capital of Upper
Chateaubriand there 2nd June 1833.
He was Commander of the 4th Regiment Light Infantry.
A member of the commission which tried the Duc d’Enghien in 1804.
A small town near Combourg.
Doctor Cheftel lived there.
1266-1290. Bice, or Beatrice Portinari was the daughter of
Folco de’ Portinari, who died in 1288. She died young in June of 1290. Dante first saw her as a child of eight, in May
1274, when he was nine years old and she was eight. His love for her inspired
the Vita Nuova and the Divine Comedy. In his works she
personifies Divine Philosphy.
Canova regarded Madame Récamier as her embodiment.
1735-1803. A Scottish
poet and essayist, he was educated at Marischal
and later became professor of moral philosophy there. His fame in his own
lifetime rested on two works, Essay on the Nature and Immutability of Truth
(1770), an attack on Hume, and The
Minstrel, or the Progress of Genius (1771–74), an autobiographical poem in
Spenserian stanzas. In describing the formation of a poet’s mind, The
Minstrel emphasizes the effect of nature; the poem influenced the
19th-century romantics, particularly Byron.
Mentioned. His health worsened after losing his younger son in 1796. Both his
sons died of tuberculosis.
Influence of The Minstrel on Byron.
Seigneury and Sires of
BkI:Chap1:Sec8 A branch
of the Chateaubriand Family. Note Briant de Chateaubriand (born about 1240), son
of Geoffroy IV, married
Jeanne de Beaufort (about 1257). Note also Jean de Chateaubriad (c1531) and
François de Chateaubriand, both Seigneurs de Beaufort.
The Lordship of Beaufort passed to the Goyon
Beauharnais, Alexandre, Vicomte de
1760-1794. A French general, born in
Martinique, he fought with the colonials in the
American Revolution and, as a supporter of the French Revolution, was a
commander in the French Revolutionary Wars. A moderate member of the National
Assembly, he was guillotined in the Reign of Terror. His widow later became the
BkXIX:Chap11:Sec1 Married to Josephine in 1779.
Beauharnais, Marie-Josèphe-Rose de Tascher, Vicomtesse de
Son of Josephine.
See Prince Eugène.
Daughter of Josephine.
See Queen Hortense.
Louis Charles, d’Orléans, Comte de
1799-1808. The youngest brother of Louis-Philippe.
Madame Récamier meets him at the
Opera in 1802.
Jean-Pierre, General de
1725-1819. Austrian general who retired in 1796 after a
series of defeats in Italy
The Italian Campaign of 1796.
Beaulieu, Geoffroy de
13th century. He
was Confessor to Saint Louis of
France, and wrote a life of the King.
Pierre-Augustin Caron de
1732-1799. The French dramatist was the author of Le Mariage de Figaro (1778) which
inspired operas by Mozart and Rossini. He undertook secret missions abroad
for Louis XV and Louis XVI, supplied arms to the American
revolutionaries and sponsored the first edition of Voltaire’s works.
The stir caused by the Mariage de Figaro.
The third part of his Figaro trilogy, La
Mère coupable, or L’autre Tartuffe
was first performed in June 1792.
1703-1781. Archbishop of Paris from 1746 to 1781,
he opposed the Encyclopedists, with little success. His pastoral letter against
Émile earned him a famous response
Pauline-Marie-Michelle-Frédérique-Ulrique de Montmorin-Saint-Hérem, Comtesse de
1768-4th November 1803.
A close friend of Chateaubriand, she had married Comte Christophe de Beaumont,
nephew of the Archbishop of Paris,
in 1786 but had soon separated from him and they were formally divorced in
1800. During the Terror she took refuge in Burgundy,
and met Joubert who probably
introduced her to Chateaubriand in March 1801.
Description and relationship.
Invited Chateaubriand to Savigny in 1801.
Monsieur Julien loaned her his box at the
was moving towards death in the spring of 1803, which influenced
Chateaubriand’s acceptance of the Rome
Bertin witnessed her death with Chateaubriand.
Her will, dated 5th May 1802,
opened the day after her death 5th
December 1803. The circumstances surrounding her death.
Her journey to Italy
in September 1803.
BkXVII:Chap3:Sec1 BkXVII:Chap3:Sec2 Her
Her funeral. Chateaubriand slightly misquotes an epitaph from the Palatine Anthology, VII:346, on Sabinus.
Letters of regret concerning her.
Her cypress tree in Paris.
Her former circle.
The effect of her death on Lucile.
She lived in the Yonne valley in 1795.
Chateaubriand visited her tomb which he had erected, in the
of San Luigi dei Francesi, on the 4th of November 1828.
Gustave-Auguste de, see
The Sub-Prefect of Calvi, he was the author of Observations on Corsica, 1822.
correctly Bausset, Louis François Joseph, Baron de
1770-1833. Prefect of the
Palace, he wrote Mémoires anecdotiques sur l’intérieur du
palais et sur quelques événemens de l’empire depuis 1805, jusqu’au 1er Mai 1814
pour servir à l’histoire de Napoléon.
Visits Napoleon in Russia
Beausset, for Bausset, Louis François, Cardinal de
French cardinal, writer, and statesman, was born at Pondichery, where his
father held an administrative position. He became Bishop of Alais, in
in 1784. Although a prominent member of the Assembly of Notables of Languedoc
in 1786 and in 1788, he was not delegated to the États Généraux of 1789. In
1791, Bausset was one of the first bishops who endorsed the ‘Exposition of
Principles on the Civil Constitution of the Clergy’. He declined to take the
oath and went to Switzerland.
Returning to France
in 1792, he was incarcerated, but set free when Robespierre fell (9 Thermidor).
He then returned to Villemoison, where he began his literary career. After the
Concordat of 1801 Bausset cheerfully resigned his see into the hands of Pius VII. Ill health prevented his
appointment to one of the newly-formed sees, but Napoleon made him a canon of St. Denis
(1806) and a member of the council of the University
of France (1808). Under the
Restoration, he became president of the University council and peer of the
realm (1815); Member of the French
(1816); Cardinal (1817), and Minister of State (1821). His valuable library and
manuscripts were bequeathed to St. Sulpice.
He wrote Accounts of Fénelon (1808)
and Bossuet (1815).
His letter to Chateaubriand of 1811.
Charles-Juste, Duc de
1720-1793. Marshal of France, Member of the Academy, Minister
of Louis XVI (1789).
The King’s hunting ground in the forest of Saint-Germain leased by him to the
The market town is in eastern England,
in Suffolk, south-east of Norwich.
The parson, an antiquarian. Chateaubriand sets out to meet him, with the
possibility of translation work to follow. Chateaubriand resided there for a
BkX:Chap9:Sec2 Six miles
A medieval fortress town in Brittany.
Once part of the Forest of Broceliande.
Visible from Combourg.
correctly Beker, Nicholas-Léonard Baget, Comte de Mons
1770-1840. A Revolutionary General, Desaix’s brother-in-law, he was in 1809 the
Governor of Belle-Île. In 1815, he helped organize the defence of Paris
after Waterloo and took command of
the troops guarding the Chamber of Peers. On 25 June 1815, the Provisional Government appointed him
to command of the troops assigned to escort Napoleon to the coast. Beker
accompanied Napoleon to Rochefort and Aix before returning to Paris.
Left Malmaison with Napoleon on 29th June 1815.
Ange-Annibal de, Seigneur de la Bouëtardais
1696-1761. Maternal grandfather of Chateaubriand. Died
Bénigne-Jeanne-Marie de Ravenel du Boisteilleul
1698-1795 The wife of Ange-Annibal,
she was born at Rennes 16th October 1698. She was the maternal
grandmother of Chateaubriand.
Educated at Saint-Cyr.
Her property around Corseul and Plancoët.
BkXXVI:Chap6:Sec1 BkXLII:Chap5:Sec1 Chateaubriand
went to stay with her, at the age of seven.
The daughter of Ange-Annibal, she
was sister to Marie Ginguené. She was Chateaubriand’s
mother. See Apolline
1762-1849 Daughter of Marie-Antoine-Bénigne de Bedée, and cousin of Chateaubriand, who
corresponded with her throughout his life.
A description of her.
of Marie-Antoine-Bénigne de Bedée, and cousin of
Flore de, Dame de Blossac
1766-1851. Daughter of Marie-Antoine-Bénigne de Bedée, and cousin of Chateaubriand, who
corresponded with her throughout his life.
Marie-Angélique-Fortunée-Cecile-Renée Ginguené de Lévenière, Madame de
1729-1823 Wife of
Marie-Antoine-Bénigne de Bedée, and aunt of
Chateaubriand. Married 17th November
BkX:Chap3:Sec3 BkXXVI:Chap6:Sec1 Mentioned.
Bedée, Marie-Annibal-Joseph de, Comte de La Bouëtardais
1758-1809. Son of
Marie-Antoine-Bénigne de Bedée, and cousin of
Chateaubriand. He was a councillor of the Parlement
de Bretagne, and a colleague there of Jean-Baptiste de
Chateaubriand, and later a companion in London,
as an émigré, of Chateaubriand himself.
Chateaubriand shared lodgings with him in London
in May 1793. He died in poverty, in London,
but not till 1809.
Dragged off to dine with Peltier et al.
Married Agathe Gilart in London 25th March 1799.
Bedée, Marie-Antoine-Bénigne, Comte de
1727-1807 Son of Ange-Annibal, he
was maternal uncle of Chateaubriand, emigrant, in Jersey,
He built the Chateau of Monchoix at Plancoët, and settled there after the death
of his father in January 1761. His mother and her
sister Suzanne-Émilie lodged in what is now
part of the village at 43 Rue de l’Abbaye (the house is extant).
Description of his establishment.
Chateaubriand visits him in 1783-4.
Present at the Brittany
in December 1788.
With Chateaubriand’s mother at Saint-Malo
in January 1792.
Emigrated to Jersey in July 1792.
Chateaubriand decided to try and join him in Jersey.
joins him in Jersey in November 1792.
Chateaubriand lodges in London with
his son, Marie-Annibal.
He passes Chateaubriand a gift of money from his family.
He informs Chateaubriand of his relatives’ suffering during the Terror.
Chateaubriand’s farewell to his uncle.
John Russell, 6th Duke of
1766-1839. Duke of Bedford (1802-1839), like most of the Russells, he was a Whig in politics, and served
as Lord Lieutenant of Ireland
in the Whig government of 1806–1807. He became, as did many of his party,
strong followers of Bonapartism, opposed the Peninsular War believing that it
neither could nor should be won. He funded, along with his son, many anti-war
He fought a duel in Kensington
with the Duke of Buckingham on the 2nd of May 1822. Neither was injured.
1770-1827. The great German composer, born in
He studied with Haydn in Vienna,
and settled there in 1792. About 600 of his works survive, including
symphonies, string quartets, piano sonatas and concertos.
Chateaubriand refers to a letter of 2nd
November 1793 to Éléonore de Breuning.
A House of Beguines. The Beguines are members of a Netherlands
lay sisterhood not bound by vows, founded by Lambert Bègue in 1180.
The Old Great Beguinage of St.
Elisabeth in Ghent was founded in 1234, thanks to a yearly interest donated by
Countess Johanna of Constantinople. It grew into a
‘Beguine city’ with a church, a chapel, a communal house, an infirmary,
eighteen ‘convents’ or houses, and 103 houses. There is still one street
left with a couple of buildings, and the Church, dedicated to St. Elisabeth of Hungary
(the oldest part of this church is from the 13th century). The Small Beguinage was founded a year
after the Great one, in 1235, and it is situated in the ‘Lange Violettenstraat’,
the ‘long street of violets’. Because it was built next to the hayfields of the
abbey ‘Nonnenbos’ (forest of the nuns), it was called
Onze-Lieve-Vrouw-ter-Hooie. Most of the buildings, still standing, were built
between 1600 and 1700.
Executed after the fall of Jaffa in 1799.
The town is in a strategic position in north-eastern France,
on the Savoureuse, in the Belfort Gap.
The scene of the republican Belfort Conspiracy in the military in December
1821/January 1822 (in which Carrel
was involved) and of further Carbonari insurrections in 1822.
Maria Christina Trivulzio, Princess
1808-1871. A Princess by marriage (1824) she left
in December 1828, and reached Rome
via Genoa in the spring of 1829.
She moved to Paris in 1831. A
protégée of Lafayette and a friend
of Thierry, she became a
celebrated queen in exile of the Italian Risorgimento.
The owner of the delightful villa which Chateaubriand had viewed but found too
1761-1826. An advocate in Paris
from 1785 to 1815, he was Deputy for the Seine 1815 to
1820, and also from 1815 to 1826 Public Prosecutor to the Royal
Court. An Ultra-Royalist he was involved in the
trial of Ney.
The 26-gun frigate
Belle-Poule (1765), famous for her duel against the English frigate HMS Arethusa
on June 17, 1778, which initiated the French intervention in the American War
of Independence. She was captured by the British in 1780.
A third Belle Poule (1828-1888), commanded
by the Prince de Joinville, was
used in 1840 to transport the remains of Napoleon
from St. Helena. She had 60 cannon and was 54m long with
a width of 15m.
The first HMS Bellerophon
of the Royal Navy was a 74-gun ship of the line launched 6 October 1786 on the River Medway near Chatham.
She was built at the shipyard of Edward Greaves. The vessel was named for the
Greek warrior who rode the winged horse Pegasus and slew the Chimera. She
fought at the battle of The Glorious First of June the Battle
of the Nile and the Battle of Trafalgar (with future Arctic
explorer John Franklin as a midshipman),
becoming one of the most famous British ships of the Napoleonic Wars. Having
difficulty pronouncing the ship’s classical name, her crew affectionately
called her the Billy Ruffian.
She achieved further fame on July 16, 1815
when Napoleon Bonaparte surrendered to Captain Frederick Lewis Maitland (later Rear Admiral Sir Frederick
Maitland) and was transported to Torbay where the ship
anchored off Brixham on July 24. There Maitland received orders from Admiral Lord
Keith. He was ‘...most positively ordered to prevent every person whatever from
coming on board the ship you command, except the officers and men who compose
her crew’. In response to his orders, Captain Maitland refused to allow the
usual visits of the boats full of traders with supplies of fresh food. John
Michelmore, aboard one of the boats hoping to sell bread, saw a sailor in one
of the lower gun-ports who signalled to them and then set adrift a small bottle
containing a message that Bonaparte was aboard. He and the baker rowed ashore
and the news quickly spread. While Maitland still kept boats from actually
coming alongside, there were no further attempts to conceal the Emperor’s
presence. After two days, Bellerophon received orders to proceed to
harbour where Lord Keith was anchored aboard his flagship HMS Ville de Paris.
Napoleon remained on board Bellerophon and the ship was still kept
isolated from the throngs of curious sightseers by two guardships anchored
close at hand. On August 4, Lord Keith ordered Bellerophon to go to sea
and await the arrival of HMS Northumberland which had been designated to
take Napoleon into exile on St Helena. On August 7,
Napoleon left the Bellerophon where he had spent over three weeks
without ever landing in England
and boarded Northumberland which then sailed for St Helena.
Bellerophon continued in use as a prison ship. She was renamed Captivity
in 1824, and sold 12 January 1836.
Napoleon sends a letter to the Prince Regent
Napoleon conveyed to her by the Épervier.
A hill-top traditionally working-class district it is situated
in north-east Paris.
Fighting there in 1814.
The earliest roller coasters descended
from Russian winter sled rides held on specially constructed hills of ice,
especially around St Petersburg. By the late 1700s entrepreneurs elsewhere began
copying the idea, using wheeled cars built on tracks. Les Montagnes Russes à Belleville
constructed and operated a gravity track in Paris from 1812. The first loop
track was probably also built in Paris from an English design in 1846. A number
of languages (Danish, French, Portuguese, Spanish) use the equivalent of ‘Russian
mountains’ to refer to them.
The Château de Bellevue near Sèvres
was the home of Madame de Pompadour.
et de l’Empire, Augustin-Daniel, Comte de
1769-1832. A French general, he fought in Italy
in 1796 and 1797. On the Egyptian expedition, he fought in the Battle
of the Pyramids, became governor of Upper
Egypt, and advanced with his troops into Nubia.
He also pushed back the enemy cavalry at the battle of Heliopolis, and played a major role in the
taking of Bulal and Cairo.
In 1805, he fought against Austria,
Prussia and Russia
under Joachim Murat, and eventually
was awarded the position of governor of Madrid.
During the Russian campaign in 1812, he fought at Dresden, Leipzig
and Hanau, again under Murat. He
was severely wounded in the battle of Craonne. Louis XVIII awarded him the title Peer of France. After the Return of Napoleon from Elba,
he became commander of the Mosel forces. After Waterloo, he surrendered to Louis XVIII, had
his title taken away, was imprisoned for a month, but then released and
reinstated as a Peer in
At Smolensk in 1812.
c1430-1516. He was a noted
Venetian Renaissance painter.
The capital city of the Ticino canton
it is famous for its three castles (Castelgrande, Montebello,
and Sasso Corbaro).
Secretary to the Rome Embassy in 1829, a career diplomat, he
had been posted to Madrid at the
start of the Restoration. He was sent to Rome
in the spring of 1828.
Chargé d’Affaires in May 1829.
Henriette Picault, Vicomtesse de
1769-1838. Born in San Domingo, she took refuge in England
at the start of the Revolution. After living with Malouët, she married him in 1810. It is
suggested she may have had a close relationship with Chateaubriand in London.
Chateaubriand met her at Mrs Lindsay’s.
(or Belzunce), Viscomte Henri de
1765-1789 Major in the Bourbon Infantry, assassinated by the
crowd at Caen on the 12th August 1789. His body was torn apart and a
woman is supposed to have eaten his heart.
(or Belsunce), Henri-François-Xavier de Belsunce de Castelmoron
1671-1755. Bishop of Marseilles from 1709, he was a hero of
the plague of 1720-1721.
His connection with Marseilles.
Quotation from a letter of 3rd
1470-1547. An Italian
scholar, he was secretary to Pope Leo X from 1513-1521, and was made Cardinal
in 1539. His most important work was Prose
della vulgar lingua (1525). Rime
(1530) is a collection of his Italian poetry.
BkXL:Chap1:Sec1 He was born in
BkXL:Chap5:Sec1 His tomb in
province, it marks the crossing point of routes from Madrid
to Santiago de Compostela and from France
to Pontevedra, Tui and Vigo.
The Battle of Benavente was fought on the
29th of December 1808. Henry Paget covering Sir John Moore’s
retreat to Corunna, drove the French back over the Cea river.
XIV, Prospero Lorenzo
(1740–58), he was the successor to Clement
XII. He patronized learning and welcomed scholars and artists to his court.
The nickname for the 2 carlini coin he issued in 1747 was the papetto or little pope.
Labre, Benoît-Joseph Labre, Saint
1745-1783. French mendicant and Roman Catholic saint. At the
age of sixteen, he attempted to join the Trappists, Carthusians, and
Cistercians, but each order rejected him as unsuitable for communal life. He
therefore settled on a life of poverty and pilgrimage. He travelled to most of
the major shrines of Europe, and begged for his food
while giving away any alms offered to him. In the last years of his life, he
lived in Rome and made only a
yearly pilgrimage to Loreto. He died of his malnutrition on April 16, during
Holy Week, in 1783. A cult grew up around him very soon after his death, and he
was made Venerable by Pius IX in 1859, with canonization by Leo XIII in 1881.
Benedictines are members
of the Roman Catholic Order of Saint Benedict of Nursia (c480-550) the father
of Western Monasticism. His monastic rule involved government by an elected
abbot, residence in one place, obedience, prayers (The Divine Office), common
ownership, and a life of work, prayer and study. The first foundation was at
BkXIII:Chap11:Sec1 Noted scholars and educators.
Levin August Gottlieb Theophil (Leonty Leontyevich), Count von
1745-1826. A Russian general, he took part in the conspiracy to assassinate Tsar Paul I, but his role in the actual killing
remains a matter of conjecture. Tsar Alexander
I made him governor-general of Lithuania in 1801, and in 1802 a general of
cavalry. He encountered Napoleon at Eylau, but six months later met with the crushing
defeat of Friedland the direct
consequence of which was the treaty of Tilsit.
He was present at Borodino. After the death of Kutuzov
he was placed at the head of an army. Bennigsen led one of the columns which
made the decisive attack on the last day of the battle of Leipzig in 1813. After the general peace he
held a command from 1825 to 1818, when he retired from active service and
settled on his Hanoverian estate of Bantein near Hildesheim.
Napoleon’s comment on him in June 1812.
His meeting with Murat.
The gardener at the Vallée-aux-Loups.
1809?-1832. A murderer,
condemned to death after a lengthy trial on the 15th of June 1832 for killing his mother and lover in July 1831.
1618-1684. An architect who worked mainly on hydraulic
planning and engineering in Venice.
He also designed the Villa Manin (1650-1660) in Passariano, the home of the
last Doge of Venice ousted by Napoleon.
His work on the Dogana di Mare or marine customs house in Venice.
He renovated the old 1525 building 1675-1677.
1797-1844. An English lawyer who travelled to Corsica
in 1823 with a commission of investigation into the discharge of Pasquale Paoli’s will.
His Sketches of Corsica (1825). Chateaubriand probably
came across the extract in Walter Scott’s Life of Napoleon (1827) which quotes
Bentivolgio, Cornelio, Cardinal
was Nuncio to Paris where he opposed the Jansenists, and
also an author.
BkXL:Chap1:Sec1 He was born in
1506-1573. He was an Italian author.
He was born in Bologna.
1579-1641. He was an Inquistor-General who signed Galileo’s
condemntation, and an author, of the famous Bolognese family that had been
expelled from Bologna in 1506.
He was born in Ferrara.
Benvenuti, Antonio, Cardinal
1765-1838. Cardinal from 1826, he carried out the
administrative functions of the Curia. He was Cardinal-Legate at Bologna
A possible contender for the Papacy in 1829.
Supported as a Papal candidate by France.
1500-1571. An Italian
sculptor, metalsmith, and author, his remarkable autobiography (written
1558–62) is one of the most important documents of the Italian 16th cent.
Banished from Florence after
fighting a duel, in 1519 he went to Rome.
Under the patronage of Pope Clement VII he became known as the most skilful
worker in metals of his day. Imprisoned on false charges, he worked at the
court of Francis I at Paris after
his release. He returned to Florence
(1545), remaining until his death. The famous gold and enamel saltcellar (Saliera)
of Francis I (Vienna Mus., stolen 2003) and the gold medallion of Leda and
the Swan (Vienna Mus.) are perhaps the best examples of those remaining.
His sculptures include the renowned Perseus with the Head of Medusa
(Loggia dei Lanzi, Florence).
Francis I was his friend and
See the Memoirs.
Marina Querini, Contessa
d. after 1833 and before
1841. Her famous salon in Venice
was attended by Byron, Stendhal and others.
BkXXXIX:Chap17:Sec1 Chateaubriand attends
her salon in Venice in 1833. The barcarolle La Biondina in gondoletta (The
blonde girl in the little gondola), by Cavaliere Giovanni Battista
Peruchini (1784-1870), was used in variations and pieces by Lizt, Beethoven and
many other composers, and often sung by Italian prima donna’s as the ad lib lesson scene aria in Rossini’s Barber of Seville.
(or Becquet), Etienne
1796-1838. A Journalist on the Journal des Débats, a relative
worked for the National.
1780-1857 French lyric poet. He was a protégé of Lucien Bonaparte and a friend of some of the most eminent
men of his day. His first collection of songs, published in 1815, was
immediately popular. He fitted his verse to popular melodies, and he used his
poems largely to express republican and Bonapartist ideas, for which he was
twice imprisoned. He published editions of his songs, Chansons, in 1815 and 1833.
His song in tribute to Chateaubriand.
His song of 1829, The Old Lance-Corporal, Le Vieux Caporal, an anti-monarchist lyric.
Quoted regarding his admiration for Bonaparte.
His pro-Bonaparte song Les Souvenirs du
Peuple. The Grandmother appears in the refrain.
Reference to a verse of his of September 1831: À Monsieur de Chateaubriand’.
See Book XXXIV:10
Dined with Chateaubriand in Paris
on the 13th of September 1831.
Chateaubriand left for Paris on the 2nd and returned on the 14th. The Café de
Paris was on the Boulevard des Italiens.
He was introduced to Chateaubriand by Hortense Allart in early 1830. His songs
naming Lisette, the archetypal
Parisian grisette, were extremely popular.
Visits Chateaubriand under house arrest in 1832.
Chateaubriand writes to him in August 1832.
He writes to Chateaubriand at Lucerne in
Chateaubriand adapts verse 2 of his song La
Vivandière of 1816, with the name Javotte
replacing the original Catin.
A reference to his song Le Roi d’Yvetot
1783-1859. A banker, Deputy for the Seine
from 1827. He became Director General of Roads, Bridges and Mines, then a State
Councillor. He published his Souvenirs
of the Revolution of 1830, in 1834.
Active on the 30th of July 1830.
1798-1886? He served the Legitimist cause, and was arrested
for publishing a series of pamphlets under the title Cancans in 1831. He was sentenced to 14 years in prison in January
1832, left for Belgium
from which he was expelled, visited Prague
in 1833, and finally took a job in a bank in Rome
in 1834 where he remained until 1839. He was still living in Nantes
A town located in
the Central Bohemian Region of the Czech Republic. Despite its small size, it
is an administrative center akin to a ‘county seat’. It lies on the road that
connects Prague with Pilsen and with Bavaria, Germany. It is approximately 40
km from the center of Prague
Chateaubriand there in May 1833.
Mentioned by Chateaubriand.
V, Raymond, Count of Provence
1209-1245. Of his famous daughters, Margaret married
IX of France, Eleanor married Henry III of England, Sancha married Richard of Cornwall, and Beatrice
married Charles of Anjou, bringing Provence as her dowry, after her father’s death.
BkXIV:Chap2:Sec3 Connected with
A mythical fountain in the Forest of Broceliande.
Mentioned by Wace.
A river in Belarus
and a tributary of the Dnieper River. The Battle of Berezina took place November
26-29, 1812 between the French army of Napoleon, retreating after his invasion
of Russia and crossing the Berezina (near Barysau, now in Belarus), and the
Russian army under Kutuzov. The battle
ended with a partial victory for the Russians. The French suffered heavy
losses. Since then ‘Berezina’ has been used in French as a synonym for catastrophe.
BkXXI:Chap7:Sec1 BkXXII:Chap1:Sec1 Mentioned.
Grand-Duc de, see Murat
A market town and a sous-préfecture of the Dordogne
département in France. The region is often called the ‘Gateway to the Périgord’.
BkXXXI:Chap1:Sec2 Chateaubriand was there in July 1829. Bergerac
has no connection with Cyrano, who was born in
Paris and whose name of Bergerac derived from a
holding near Chevreuse.
Bergerac, Savinien de
1619-1655. A French dramatist and duellist born in
Paris, he is now best remembered for the many
works of fiction which have been woven around his life story, most notably the
play by Edmond Rostand which bears his name. In those fictional works he is
featured with an overly large nose.
The quotation is from his tragedy The
Death of Agrippina (1654), a profession of atheism made by Sejanus before
conspiring against Tiberius.
The capital city and a
Land of Germany, in the north-east of the country on the River Spree, it was founded
in the 13th century and was an important strategic and commercial centre and a
member of the Hanseatic
League. It was the
capital of the Hohenzollern Electors from the 15th century and became the
capital of Prussia in the 18th century and of the German Empire in
BkIV:Chap1:Sec1 BkIV:Chap2:Sec1 BkIV:Chap3:Sec1 BkIV:Chap4:Sec1 BkIV:Chap6:Sec1 BkIV:Chap7:Sec1 BkIV:Chap8:Sec1 BkIV:Chap9:Sec1 Chateaubriand wrote this chapter there. He was
nominated as envoy to Prussia 28th November 1820. He occupied his post in Berlin from 11th January to 19th April 1821 and resigned on the 29th July.
BkXVI:Chap6:Sec1 Chateaubriand did not take up his post in
Berlin until 1821, but may have read the correspondence
prior to that date in 1820.
BkXVI:Chap9:Sec1 Madame de Stael there in 1804. She stayed in an apartment on the
bank of the River Spree.
BkXX:Chap6:Sec1 The Berlin Decree was a decree of Napoleon of November 21,
1806, declaring Britain in a state of blockade, and vessels trading with
it liable to capture.
BkXXII:Chap3:Sec1 Cossacks entered the city on
1813, but left doing
BkXXII:Chap4:Sec1 Bernadotte defeated Ney at Dennewitz near Berlin on 6th September 1813.
BkXXII:Chap13:Sec1 Plundered by Napoleon.
BkXXV:Chap13:Sec1 Chateaubriand is promised the
Berlin embassy in 1820.
BkXXVI:Chap1:Sec1 BkXXVI:Chap2:Sec1 BkXXXVI:Chap11:Sec1
Chateaubriand arrived in
Berlin to take up his Ambassadorship on Thursday the
11th of January 1821 at
eight in the morning. Unter den Linden
(Under the Lindens) – named for its linden or lime trees line the grassed
pedestrian mall between the two carriageways is one of Berlin’s best-known
streets. A boulevard of linden trees was planted from 1647 extending from the
electoral palace to the gates of the city by Friedrich Wilhelm, ‘The Great
Elector’, who wanted to ride from his castle to his hunting park the Tiergarten
with more appropriately Baroque splendour. This stretch became the best known and
grandest street in Berlin. Das
Morgenblatt, the ‘Morning Paper for the Educated Class’ ran from 1807 to
1865. Johann Friedrich Cotta came up with the idea for this periodical which
appeared up to six times a week and the design of which was modelled on that of
a newspaper. It was a tremendous success and employed all the talents of the period.
The Botanical Gardens mentioned (since moved to Steglitz) were in the
Schoeneberg district. Chateaubriand visited them in February 1821.
Charlottenburg Palace is the largest in Berlin.
The original, central part was constructed between 1695 and 1699. It was
intended as the summer home for Sophie Charlotte, Elector Frederick III’s wife.
The park behind Schloss Charlottenburg was originally laid out in French
Baroque style. In the 18th and 19th century, the park was converted into a
landscape garden. The Queen of Prussia, Louise,
is buried beneath a marble tomb (1811-14) by Rauch (1777-1857) in the Mausoleum
Chateaubriand left Berlin on the 19th of April, 1821, to attend
the baptism of the Duke of Bordeaux. He never returned to Prussia.
Lord Clanwilliam was the British
Ambassador in Berlin from
Bernadotte, Jean-Baptiste-Jules, King of
became King of Sweden and Norway
(1818–44), after serving as a French Revolutionary general. He rose from the
ranks, during the Italian campaign (1796–97), was French ambassador at
(1798), and was Minister of War (1799). He played a prominent part in the
victory of Austerlitz in 1805. Napoleon made him a Marshal of the Empire
(1804) and Prince of Ponte Corvo (1806). However, his relations with the
emperor were cool. While commanding in N Germany he
negotiated with the Swedes, who were impressed by his generous conduct. In
1809, Gustavus IV of Sweden
abdicated and was succeeded by his aged and childless uncle, Charles XIII. In
need of both a suitable successor to Charles and an alliance with
Sweden turned to
Bernadotte. After receiving the support of Napoleon and joining the
Church the marshal accepted. He was
elected crown prince by the Riksdag and adopted (1810) by Charles XIII as
Charles John. The infirmity of the old king and the dissensions in the council
of state put the reins of government in the hands of the crown prince. He
favoured the acquisition of Norway
rather than the re-conquest of Finland
and thus he threw in his lot with Russia
against Napoleon and Denmark.
His Swedish contingent played an important part in the defeat of Napoleon at
the battle of Leipzig (1813), and in 1814,
having marched his army into Denmark,
he forced the Danes to cede Norway
in the Treaty of Kiel. Norway,
was united with Sweden
under a single king. The Congress of Vienna confirmed the union but restored
the town of Ponte Corvo to the
Pope. Bernadotte succeeded to the throne in 1818 as Charles XIV. He maintained
peace throughout his reign, which was marked by internal improvements, notably
the completion of the Göta Canal and a reform of the
school system. However, his increasing opposition to the liberals made him
unpopular by the end of his reign. The founder of the present Swedish dynasty,
he was succeeded by his son, Oscar I.
of Sweden from
French Ambassador in Vienna in
1798. He had to quit his post owing to the disturbances cause by his hoisting
the tricolour over the Embassy.
Apparently opposed to Napoleon on the latter’s return to France
from Egypt in
Saw Moreau in Stockholm.
After the defeats of Lützen and Bautzen
it was the Swedish Crown Prince as he then was who put fresh heart into the
allies; and at the conference of Trachenberg drew up the general plan for the
campaign which began after the expiration of the Truce of Plaswitz. Charles
John, as commander-in-chief of the northern army, successfully defended the
approaches to Berlin against Oudinot in August and against Ney in September at the Battles of Grossbeeren
and Dennewitz; but after Leipzig he went
his own way, determined at all hazards to cripple Denmark and secure Norway.
He defeated Ney at Dennewitz near Berlin on 6th September 1813.
The defection of the Saxons and Wurtembergers to him at Leipzig in 1813 decided the outcome of the
24:Sec1 Chateaubriand is offered the Swedish embassy in 1814.
Chateaubriand pokes fun at his pretensions.
Described by Constant.
of Clairvaux, Saint
monastic reformer and political figure. Widely known for his piety and
mysticism, he was instrumental in the condemnation of Peter Abelard and in rallying support for the
His condemnation of Abelard at the Council at Sens in 1140.
de Saint Pierre, Jacques-Henri
1737-1814. A French naturalist and author, he was a friend
of Rousseau, by whom he was
strongly influenced. His chief work, Les Études de la nature (1784-88),
sought to prove the existence of God from the wonders of nature; it is rich in
descriptive passages, and added specific colour terms and plant names to the
French language. A section of this was the sentimental prose idyll Paul et
Virginie (1788), which attained an immense vogue and influenced the French
The reference is obscure.
Les Études de la nature influenced
A reference to Paul et Virginie set
in Mauritius (Indian
The Swiss capital on the River Aare, it joined the Swiss
Confederation in 1353 and became the capital in 1848.
The dissensions of 1832 were part of the constitutional reform movement known
as the Regeneration.
1779-1852. Governor of Rome 1820-1826, Cardinal 1826, he was
Secretary of State for the Roman Curia from June 1828
He allowed the local authorities to lodge the Chateaubriands in the
Chateaubriand meets him in Rome in
A description of the man.
Chateaubriand discusses him with the Pope.
Discusses the Pope’s health with Chateaubriand.
An anti-Jesuit voter.
Quoted in 1833.
François-Joachim de Pierre de Bernis, Cardinal de
1715-1794. A French statesman and Cardinal, he became known as one of the most expert epigrammatists
at Louis XV’s court, and by his verses won
the friendship of Madame de Pompadour,
the royal mistress. In 1751 he was appointed to the French embassy at Venice.
He took an important part in the delicate negotiations between France and Austria
which preceded the Seven Years War. He became secretary for foreign affairs on June
27, 1757, but owing to his attempts to counteract the spendthrift policy of the
Marquise de Pompadour fell into disgrace and in 1758 was banished to Soissons
by Louis XV. The previous November he had been created cardinal by Clement XIII.
Later recalled he became Archbishop of Albi in 1764, then Ambassador in Rome in
1769 until dismissed by the Revolution.
Once owned Plessis-Chamant, near Senlis.
Count Christian Günther von
1769-1835. A Danish and Prussian statesman and diplomat, he
followed Metternich’s European policy.
Minister for Foreign Affairs in Prussia
Chateaubriand informs him of his resignation in July 1821.
Mentioned in 1824.
He died in 1835.
Charles-Ferdinand, Duc de
1777-1820. The younger son of Charles, Comte d’Artois (later Charles X of France), he served in
the Prince de Condé’s army against
the French Revolutionary forces, joined the Russian Army, and was an émigré in
London for thirteen years. His assassination by a saddler, Louis-Pierre Louvel, during the reign of Louis XVIII — an attempt to extinguish the
Bourbon line—gave the ultra-royalists the opportunity to turn Louis XVIII
against the liberals. Berry’s
posthumous son was Henri, Comte de Chambord.
His assassination mentioned.
Chateaubriand refers to his Mémoires
of the Duc du Berry’s life, published in May 1820. (Part I, Book II.8)
quotes from his Mémoires, letters et
pièces authentiques touchant la vie et la mort de S.A.R. Monseigneur le duc de
Berry (Part I, Book III.6 et al). It was published by Le Normant in 1820.
His burial at Saint Denis in 1820.
In London when the Duc d’Enghien was abducted.
Present at the exhumation of the Duc d’Enghien, 26th March 1816.
His mortuary chapel.
During his exile he bore the tile Comte de Chambord.
Chateaubriand suggested he leave for Lille
The Comte d’Artois and the Duc de
Berry his son were involved in a fiasco near Béthune (at
Gorgues and Estaires), where having been bogged down in the mud after heavy
rain their military convoy abandoned its equipment in panic after false news of
an imminent attack. A large portion of the King’s treasury was never recovered.
It was suggested he marry a sister of Alexander
In Ghent during the Hundred Days.
His courier brings news to Ghent.
His apology to the King for disturbing him, in dying.
death indirectly led to Decazes’ fall.
His death was a pretext for the return of censorship.
Chateaubriand hears of his assassination in 1820.
The anniversary of his death was marked by a service on the 14th of February 1831 at
Saint-Germain-l’Auxerrois in Paris.
It degenerated into a riot, apparently fabricated to suggest a Legitimist plot.
A few months later the old church was demolished to make way for a road.
Chateaubriand favoured the proposed marriage (mooted in 1815) of the Duke with
grand-Duchess Anne, the daughter of Paul I
and sister of Alexander, as a
means of reclaiming the Rhineland through a
Louise, see d’Artois
Marie-Caroline de Bourbon, Duchesse de
1798-1870. Wife of Charles-Ferdinand,
she was the daughter-in-law of Charles
X. Of the Bourbons of Naples, she was imprisoned 1832-33 after trying to
stir up the Vendée against Louis-Philippe.
She married, 1833, Count Hector de Lucchesi-Palli. She was championed by
Her trips to Dieppe in the last
years of the Restoration helped to promote the fashion for sea-bathing.
The ladies dancing attendance on her under the Restoration.
The presentation of a cradle to her by the women of the Bordeaux Market.
Insulted on the way to the review of the National Guard on 29th April 1827 on the Champ-de-Mars.
An allusion to Chateaubriand’s support for her.
Her delight in the July 1830 decrees.
The mother of Henri V.
In Italy in 1831 she laid plans for an insurrection which would allow her to
exercise the Regency which she believed hers by right on behalf of her son
Henri V. Here secret government of 7th
February 1832 involved Marshal Victor
Duc de Bellune, Chancellor Pastoret, the
Marquis de Latour-Marbourg, etc,
with Berryer as Secretary General.
donation of 12000 francs to help the cholera victims in Paris
in 1832. Chateaubriand’s pamphlet appeared on the 14th of April, printed by Le
Her activites in the Vendée in 1832.
She writes to Chateaubriand from Venice
in August 1832.
She was arrested in hiding at Nantes on the 8th of November 1832, and
escorted to the Fortress of Blaye.
Chateaubriand’s Memoir is dated 24th December 1832, and was
published on the 29th. Thirty thousand copies were sold before it was seized on
the 9th January 1833.
At her arrest she had been hiding behind a fireplace in which the police lit a
fire to smoke her out. She resisted for some time before surrendering, hence
Chateaubriand’s comparison to the torments of St Lawrence who was grilled
The Duchess was obliged to sign, in February 1833, a declaration of a secret
Italian marriage, as she was visibly pregnant.
Her letter to Chateaubriand of the 7th
of May 1833.
She gave birth on the 10th May 1833,
apparently respecting the protocol of doing so in public, but with prison
officers as witnesses!
Her hopeless cause.
Chateaubriand carries her letters to Prague
in May 1833.
Blacas was Ambassador to Naples
Chateaubriand delivers her letters to Carlsbad.
Chateaubriand writes to her on his return from Prague
in June 1833.
In Naples in August 1833.
Chateaubriand receives news of her.
Chateaubriand meets her in Ferrara, on the 18th of September 1833.
In Padua 20th September 1833.
Chateaubriand writes to her in Trieste
1790-1868. A French
lawyer and Royalist politician, he defended the freedom of the press during the
reigns of King Louis-Philippe and Napoleon III. He was one of the few
Legitimist deputies to be re-elected (for the Haute-Loire) in 1831.
He was scheduled to be at Vannes to defend a
Commandant Guillemot on the 12th of
June 1832. He met Bourmont at Nantes on the 22nd of May and the Duchesse the following evening, and delayed the
insurrection, which was subsequently reassigned to the night of the 3rd of
June. Meanwhile Chateaubriand, who had been persuaded to join the council (‘the
little committee,’) wrote a second letter on the 1st of June which was seized
by the police.
His trial in Nantes.
Chateaubriand writes on his behalf. Berryer refused to recognise a military
tribunal. By order of the Court of Cassation of the 30th June, jurisdiction in
civil cases passed to the ordinary courts. Berryer was acquitted at the
Loire-et-Cher assizes on the 16th
At Geneva 12th November 1832.
Pleads in court in March 1833.
In 1789 the émigré army achieved an ephemeral success under Condé on the Lower Rhine.
A tutor to the Custine family, from
See the Marquise de Custine.
Writes to Chateaubriand.
1754-1830. A Cardinal
from 1823, he was a zelante and
friend of Cappellari who was his heir.
BkXXX:Chap1:Sec2 A pro-Jesuit voter.
A student at the École Polytechnique in July 1830.
Louis-Alexandre, Marshal of
1753-1815. Marshal of France, he served in the American
Revolution and in the French Revolutionary Wars, distinguishing himself under
Napoleon in Italy,
where he served as chief of staff. He was twice minister of war and from 1805
was chief of staff of the Grande Armée. The emperor made him prince of
Neuchâtel and Wagram and arranged
his marriage with a Bavarian princess. Berthier accommodated himself to the
return of the Bourbons in 1814. Torn by divided allegiance when Napoleon
returned from Elba, he withdrew to Bavaria,
where he died in obscure circumstances.
Napoleon’s early opinion of him.
Went with Napoleon on the Egyptian
Returned to France
with Napoleon in 1799.
Napoleon gave him the Château of Grosbois in Val-de-Marne in 1805, following
the sentencing of General Moreau
who had bought it from Barras.
At Gorodnia during the retreat.
Accompanied Napoleon during the retreat.
21:Sec1 Rallied to Louis XVIII at Compiègne in 1814.
23:Sec1 His allegiance transferred to the Bourbons.
Prince of Neuchâtel from 31st March 1806, his administration
created a route over La Tourne in the Val-de-Travers which Chateaubriand
compares ironically to the Simplon
project. The manner of his death was
uncertain; according to some accounts he was assassinated by members of a
secret society, others say that, maddened by the sight of Russian troops
marching to invade France, he threw himself from the window, at Bamberg, and was killed.
Auguste-Marie, Baron de
1787-1870. A Napoleonic officer of engineers, he was named a
Colonel by the Restoration in 1831, a Marshal in 1838, and was Inspector
General of Engineers. He sat in the Chamber of Deputies 1832-1848.
At Neuilly on the 30th of July 1830, as aide de camp to Louis-Philippe.
1748-1822. A French chemist, his contributions
include the analysis of ammonia and prussic acid and the discovery of the
bleaching properties of chlorine. He collaborated with Antoine Lavoisier in his
researches and in reforming chemical nomenclature and supported him in his
theory of combustion. His greatest contribution was in his Essai de statique
chimique (1803), in which he presented his speculations on chemical
affinity and his discovery of the reversibility of reactions. He went to Egypt
with Napoleon for the Egyptian campaign.
Became a supporter of Napoleon.
Returned to France
with Napoleon in 1799.
Bertier de Sauvigny, Louis-Benigne-François
1737-89. Intendant of Paris, he was killed with his
father-in-law Foullon, on the 22nd
Killed by a crowd along with his father-in-law. His head was carried on a pike
through the streets.
Bertier de Sauvigny, Ferdinand de
1772-1867. Son of Louis,
in 1810 he founded the secret society of the Chevaliers de la Foi, aimed at
producing with the Congregation a Catholic Restoration. He formed a royalist
resistance during the Hundred Days, and was made Prefect of Calvados in 1815,
then Grenoble in 1816, but resigned
in opposition to Decazes. He was an Ultra Deputy for the Seine
1824-1827, supported Polignac, and was Minister for Waterways and Forests.
Royalist advocate in July 1830.
1766-1841. A journalist, called Le Gros Bertin to
distinguish him from his brother he was the proprietor
of the Journal des Débats. He was
implicated in the Roux de Laborie
conspiracy and imprisoned in the Temple
(Feb-Nov 1801) then exiled to Italy.
Chateaubriand’s friendship with him.
Escorted Madame de Beaumont to Florence
Advised Chateaubriand regarding Les Martyrs.
Chateaubriand found him at Tournai in
He supports Chateaubriand in the Journal
in June 1824.
He writes to Chateaubriand in Rome
in March 1829.
He visits Chateaubriand under house arrest in 1832.
Charles X asks after the Bertin
brothers in 1833.
De Vaux, Louis-François
1771-1842. Journalist and co-proprietor of the Journal des Débats, he was the younger
brother of Bertin. From 1815 to 1817 he was
Secretary-general of the Police Department. He was Deputy for Seine-et-Oise in
1820 and a Councillor of State in 1824. He soon resigned but was re-elected in
Gave Chateaubriand literary advice.
In Tournai in March 1815.
The Captain of the first demi-brigade of veterans in
in 1809, he was appointed as judge-advocate of the military commission
military engineer and general, friend of Napoleon I and his companion in exile,
first at Elba (1814–15), then at St. Helena (1815–21). His diary is
considered invaluable for its frank account of Napoleon’s character and life in
exile. It was decoded, annotated, and published by P. Fleuriot de Langle as Cahiers
de Sainte-Hélène, 1816–21. After Napoleon's death in 1821,
Bertrand returned to France,
where a death sentence that had been passed on him in absentia (1817) was
annulled. In 1840, with the Prince de Joinville,
he escorted Napoleon’s body from St. Helena to France
for its final burial.
20:Sec2 With Napoleon on his journey to Elba
Left Malmaison with Napoleon on 29th June 1815.
Accompanied Napoleon to St Helena in
Mentioned in 1832.
Francis Elizabeth (Fanny) Dillon, Madame
d. 1836. Wife of Comte Bertrand
Accompanied Napoleon to St Helena in 1815
with her husband.
de Bronstatt (or Bezenval), Pierre Victor Baron de
soldier. He was the son of Jean Victor Besenval, colonel of the regiment of
Swiss guards in the pay of France,
who was charged in 1707 by Louis XIV with
a mission to Sweden,
to reconcile Charles XII with the Tsar Peter the Great, and to unite them in
alliance with France
Pierre Victor served at first as aide-de-camp to Marshal Broglie during the campaign of 1748 in
then as aide-de-camp to the duke of Orléans during the Seven Years War. He then
became commander of the Swiss Guards. When the Revolution began Besenval
remained firmly attached to the court, and was given command of the troops which
the king had concentrated on Paris
in July 1789, a deployment which led to the taking of the Bastille.
Besenval showed incompetence in the crisis, and attempted to flee. He was
arrested, tried by the tribunal of the Châtelet, but acquitted. He then fell
into obscurity and died in Paris in 1794.
He is principally known as the author of the Mémoires which were published in 1805-1807, in which are reported
many scandalous tales, true or false, of the court of Louis XVI and Marie Antoinette. The authenticity of these
memoirs is not absolutely established.
Basilius (John) Cardinal
c1403-1472. Born at Trebizond, educated at Constantinople, he went in 1423 to the Peloponnese to hear Gemistus Pletho expound the philosophy
of Plato. On being tonsured monk, he adopted the name of an old Egyptian anchorite
Bessarion, whose story he has related. In 1437, he was made metropolitan of
Nicaea by the Byantine Emperor John VIII Palaeologus,
whom he accompanied to Italy. Pope
Eugene IV made him a Cardinal in 1439. He was a teacher, scholar, churchman,
diplomat and patron.
Jean-Baptiste, Marshal, Duc d’Istrie
Napoleonic Marshal, in the Egyptian
Campaign, he took part in the battles of Acre and Aboukir.
His performance at Marengo in 1800 saw him a general of brigade and by 1802 he
was leading a division. In 1804, he became a Marshal and led the Imperial Guard
cavalry at Austerlitz, Jena,
Eylau and Friedland. Sent to Spain
he won the battle of Medina del Rio Seco, fought at Somosierra and chased Sir
John Moore’s army to Corunna. In 1809, his cavalry performed very well at Aspern-Essling
and Wagram and, in Russia,
he saved Bonaparte from Cossacks during the disastrous retreat in 1812. His
last battle was at Weissenfels, in 1813, where he died instantly after being
hit in the chest by a cannonball.
De Baudus his aide-de-camp in 1812.
At Gorodnia during the retreat.
At Smorgoni in December 1812.
Commanded the cavalry during the retreat.
The town is on the West Bank of the Jordan
near Jerusalem. It is traditionally the
birthplace of Jesus.
A city of ancient Palestine,
apparently located somewhere north-east of Samaria,
c.10 miles from that city. It was the scene of the principal events of the Book
of Judith. It has been variously identified, by some even with Jerusalem,
but the data points to a site on the heights west of Jenîn (Engannim), between
the plains of Esdrelon and Dothan,
where Haraiq, Kh. Sheikh Shibel, and el-Bârid lie close together.
Mentioned. Chateaubriand’s derivation of Scafet as a name for it is uncertain.
A city and commune
of northern France, sous-préfecture of the Pas-de-Calais département,
it is located in the former province of Artois.
The Comte d’Artois and the Duc de
Berry his son were involved in a fiasco near Béthune
(at Gorgues and Estaires), where having been bogged down in the mud after heavy
rain their military convoy abandoned its equipment etc in panic after false
news of an imminent attack. A large portion of the King’s treasury was never
(or Betio), Abbé Pietro
d.1846. He was Head Librarian
at the Marciana Library (facing the Doge’s Palace) in
Venice from 1819-1846.
BkXXXIX:Chap5:Sec1 Chateaubriand visits him on
the 11th of
the Ducal Palace.
Jacques Claude, Comte
1761-1835. A French politician, in 1814 he was a member of
the provisional government as Minister of the Interior, and rallied to the
House of Bourbon. Louis XVIII named him
director-general of police and afterwards Naval Minister. He followed Louis to
during the Hundred Days, became one of his confidants, and contributed to draw
up Louis’ Charter. After the full Bourbon Restoration, lacking the support of
the Ultra-royalists, he was given the title of Minister of State without
portfolio, which was equivalent to a retirement. Elected deputy, he attached
himself to the moderate party, and defended the liberty of the press. In 1830,
he was made a Peer of France by Charles
X, and confirmed by Louis-Philippe
after the July Revolution, becoming director-general of manufactures and
24:Sec1 His appointment as Minister of the Interior in 1814.
In Ghent during the Hundred Days.
Opposed to Fouché becoming a Minister at the second Restoration.
Bonifazio Aldobrandini, Cardinal
1571-1601. He was
created a Cardinal in 1599.
BkXL:Chap2:Sec4 His association with
Pronounced bay, it
is a small town 9km south of Aigle, noted for its salt mining. The Valais
nearby is the Swiss portion of the Rhône valley, and Switzerland’s
third largest canton.
The Marquise de Custine died there
Chateaubriand there in September 1833.
A city in the Languedoc-Roussillon region of France,
it is where hostilities in the Albigensian Crusades began in 1209, with the sack
of the town, and the slaughter of 20,000 townspeople.
Chateaubriand recounts a legend of the incident.
BkXXII:Chap8:Sec1 Pius VII passed through on his way back to Italy
1730-1783. Author of Cours de mathèmatiques, a standard
mathematics text in the schools. He was a dreaded examiner for the competitive entrance
examinations for the Marine Guard at Brest.
BkII:Chap1:Sec1 The text used at
Dol College, to
A river in the Basque
country of northern Spain it rises near Errazu in the province of Navarre and flows through that territory
for much of its 66 km length. Its last 10 km form part of the border
between France and Spain before flowing into the Atlantic Ocean (Bay of Biscay) between Hendaye, France and Hondarribia, Spain.
Wellington crossed the river at dawn on
October 7th 1813 and
Lake Biel (French: Lac
de Bienne) is a lake in the west of Switzerland. Together with Lake Murten
and Lake Neuchâtel, it is one of the three large lakes in the Jura region of Switzerland.
Possibly one of the Biercourts of Montreuil.
Mentioned as authorising funds to Napoleon.
Louis Pierre Edouard, Baron
diplomatist and historian, he was ambassador in
Warsaw 1810-1812. During the Hundred Days he once more
entered Napoleon’s service, and, after Waterloo, as minister of foreign affairs under the
executive commission, it was he who signed the convention of
the 3rd of July
1815, by which
Paris was handed over to the allies. Bignon did not
re-enter public life until 1817, when he was elected to the chamber of deputies,
in which he sat until 1830. Elected deputy in 1831 and member of the chamber of
peers in 1839, he withdrew for the most part from politics, to, devote himself
to his great work, the Histoire de France
sous Napoleon (1829–1838, and, 1847–1850).
BkXX:Chap12:Sec1 Ambassador to
Capital of Vizcaya province, Northern Spain, in the Basque
Country, on both banks of the Nervión River, near the Bay of Biscay, it has been
a leading Spanish port and commercial centre since the 19th century. It was
founded c.1300 on the site of an ancient settlement, and flourished because of
a wool export trade in the 15th and 16th centuries. In the 19th century, it was
besieged by the Carlists three times.
Defended by General Sir Robert Wilson
during the Spanish War.
Billaud-Varenne, Jacques (Jean)-Nicolas Billaud
1756-1819. A French revolutionary. A violent antimonarchist
in the Convention, the revolutionary national assembly, he and Jean Marie
Collot d’Herbois were the two members of the ultra-revolutionary Hebértists
faction to sit on the Committee of Public Safety. A consummate politician, he
survived the execution of Hébert, successfully intrigued against Danton, and helped bring about the downfall of
Robespierre on 9 Thermidor. He was
deported to French Guiana for his role in the Reign of Terror. He refused an
amnesty offered by Napoleon. Ultimately
he went to Haiti, where he died.
His arrest in 1795.
1801-1852. A diplomat.
Diplomatic attaché to the French Embassy in London
A character in the Icelandic Eyrbyggja Saga. Later speculation connected his travels with the
Norse discovery of America
His mythical (?) voyage to America.
Vinland was the name given to part of North
America by the Icelandic Norseman Leif Eiríksson, about year 1000. Later archeological
evidence of Norse settlement in North America was found in L’Anse aux Meadows
in Newfoundland, Canada.
Charles de Gontaut, Duc de
1562-1602. He fought for the Royal party against the League.
He was an Admiral and Marshal of France.
After fulfilling diplomatic missions
for Henry IV in England and
Switzerland (1600), he was accused and convicted of high treason and was
beheaded in the Bastille on the 31st of July 1602.
Ambassador to Elizabeth I of England
Duc de, see Lauzun
Bischofsheim an der
Rhön is a town in the district Rhön-Grabfeld, in
Germany. It is
situated in the Rhön Mountains,
29 km southeast of Fulda.
Chateaubriand there 2nd of June 1833.
d’Aulps, Pierre-Louis Jean Casimir, Prince d’Aulps
1770-1839. French statesman and diplomat, he was a convinced
Royalist, and companion of Louis XVIII
in exile. He was Minister of the King’s Household and then Grand-Master of the
Wardrobe (1815). He was later ambassador to Naples,
and Rome. In 1830 he followed
Charles X into exile, and died in Vienna.
24:Sec1 Minister of the King’s Household in 1814.
Chateaubriand sends a message to him at Lille
in March 1815. However he was already in Ghent
with the King.
Chateaubriand consoles him.
At Mons during the return from Ghent in 1815.
A favourite of Louis XVIII.
First Gentleman of the King’s Chamber from 1823 succeeding the Duc de Richelieu.
Chateaubriand writes to him. Blacas was Ambassador to Naples
BkXXXVI:Chap10:Sec1 BkXXXVIII:Chap1:Sec1 Mentioned.
He writes to Chateaubriand at Waldmünchen
In Prague with the exiled Court in
A member of the Prague
He conducts Chateaubriand to the King on the 25th of May 1833. He has the King’s ear.
At dinner in the Hradschin
on the 25th of May 1833.
Chateaubriand visits him. He was an amateaur artist with a fine collection of
medals and cameos.
Henri’s dislike of him.
He announces a Council, to include Chateaubriand.
Blamed for preventing the Duchesse de Berry from travelling to Prague
in September 1833.
La Ferronays was his brother-in-law.
In Prague in September 1833.
Bustehrad, Prague, 26th and 27th of
Edward, Prince of Wales
1718-1800. Professor of Literature at
published his Lectures on Rhetoric and
Belles-Lettres (1783) which influenced Chateaubriand’s generation. His Critical Dissertation on Ossian (1763) was cited in the Essai.
1811-1882. The French writer, historian and socialist politician
was born in Spain.
His phrase (from The Organization of Work,
1840), ‘From each according to his abilities, to each according to his needs’,
is often wrongly attributed to others.
Mentioned in 1830.
A quotation from his Histoire de dix ans
(1841). See Louis Alexandre Peron’s painting of the scene, shown at the Salon
in 1834, and now in the Carnavalet (Transfert
nocturne des victims de la revolution de Juillet 1830).
A character in Les Aventures du dernier Abencérage (written
in 1810) by Chateaubriand, Aben-Hamet,
the last of his Moorish tribe, falls in love, in Granada, with the devout Christian girl, Blanca,
an impossible liaison since they are fated to be eternally separated by their
BkIII:Chap7:Sec1 BkXVII:Chap1:Sec1 BkXLI:Chap1:Sec1
Her story set in Granada.
c1188-1252. The daughter of Alfonso VIII of Castile,
she married Louis VIII of France
in 1200. She was Queen of France 1223-1226, and Regent for her son Louis IX during his minority,
1226-1236 and during his Crusade, 1248-1252.
A town on the right bank of the Gironde
estuary, 35m north of Bordeaux, founded
by the Romans (as Blavia). Vauban built a
citadel within the ruins of the Gothic château, containing the tomb of
Caribert. Tradition claims that Roland is buried in the basilica.
Chateaubriand visited in 1802.
The Duchesse de Berry was held there after her arrest on 8th November 1832.
The Baroque palace built between 1705 and 1725 at
near Oxford, designed by Vanbrugh. It was a
gift from Queen Anne to the Duke of Marlborough
as a monument to his French victories. The gardens were laid out by Capability
The Battle of Blenheim in 1704 was a comprehensive defeat by Marlborough and
Prince Eugène over Louis XIV’s troops. The battle (referred to in some countries as the Battle of Höchstädt) in the War of the
Spanish Succession was fought on 13
August 1704. The village
of Blindheim (Blenheim in
English) lies on the Danube, 10 miles
southwest of Donauwörth in Bavaria,
Present at Strasbourg during the
arrest of the Duc d’Enghien.
The city of
situated in the region of Centre, and is the capital of the department
of the Loir et Cher. At the end of the 14th century, the county of
Blois was sold to Prince Louis of Orleans, son of King Charles V. He lived in the
castle for 25 years attracting a small court of scholars and poets. His
grandson, Louis XII became king of France
in 1498 and decided to move to Blois: in this way the small town became a royal
town and the capital of the Kingdom. Under Louis XII and Francis I the town of Blois grew
considerably. But after the disaster of Pavia in 1525, Francis I never returned
to Blois and his successors only paid short visits to the town.
The Duc De Guise murdered there.
Chateaubriand there in 1807.
The Regency withdrew there in 1814.
The Dance of Death painting there, and later variants e.g. the woodcuts in the
d1364. Duke of Brittany, from 1341 to his death.
Charles was the son of Count Guy I of Chatillon and Blois, by Margaret of
Valois, a sister of king Philip VI of
France. He was an accomplished military leader, who inspired loyalty by his
religious fervour. In 1337 he married Joanna of Dreux, heiress and niece of Duke
John III. Together, Charles and Joanna fought the House of Montfort in the Breton War of Succession
(1341-1364), with the support of the crown of France. Despite his piety,
Charles did not hesitate in ordering the massacre of 2000 civilians after the
siege of Quimper. After initial successes, he was taken prisoner by the English
in 1346. He was released nine years afterwards against a ransom of about half a
million ecús, and resumed the war against the Montforts. He died at the battle
of Auray which determined the end of the war and the victory of the Montforts.
He was canonized as saint for his devoutness to religion, but the process was
made null by Pope Gregory IX by request of Duke John V of Brittany.
Either Jean I of Nesle (c. 1155-1202), Lord
of Nesle from 1180, who took part in the Third Crusade, or his son Jean II of Nesle (d. 1241), who took
part in the Fourth Crusade, either or both being French trouvères. By 1260,
Blondel’s name had become attached to a legend in the highly fictionalised Récits
d'un ménestrel de Reims. This claimed that after
I of England was arrested and held for ransom in 1192, he was
found by the minstrel Blondel, whom he saw from his window, and to whom he sang
a verse of a song they both knew.
BkXXXVII:Chap5:Sec1 Chateaubriand portrays
himself in the role.
They were cousins of Chateaubriand. Madame de Blossac
(1766-1851), was born Flore de Bedée.
Mentioned by Lucile.
Gebhard Leberecht von
1742-1819. Prussian field marshal, an outstanding military
opponent of Napoleon I, he was an officer in the army of King Frederick II from
1760. He incurred royal displeasure when, believing himself passed over for
promotion, he abruptly resigned in the early 1770s. He returned to service only
in 1787 after Frederick’s death. He
fought well in the disastrous campaign of 1806 against the French and surrendered
with honour near Lübeck. He subsequently
helped Hardenberg, and Scharnhorst recreate the Prussian opposition to Napoleon. He was a leader in the War of
Liberation (1813–14). He won brilliant victories at Wahlstatt and Möckern and
played a part in the defeat of the French at Leipzig.
Crossing the Rhine, he led his army to Paris.
In the Waterloo campaign of 1815,
he was defeated at Ligny but arrived at the battle of Waterloo in time to make it a victory. In
1814 he was made prince of Wahlstatt.
Defeated and captured at Lübeck, November
In 1813 Blücher became
commander-in-chief of the Army of Silesia, with Gneisenau and Muffling as his
principal staff officers, and 40,000 Prussians and 50,000 Russians under his
His drunkenness and desire to see Napoleon hanged.
His popularity in England
Ridge Mountains, Virginia
Part of the Appalachian Mountain range which runs from
Canada to Alabama.
Chateaubriand crossed the range somewhere east of Knoxville, possibly near Tellico Block
House, which may be Chateaubriand’s Chillicoth. (Place of council in Shawnee,
Tellico being the Cherokee equivalent, frequently found as a place-name). He
was then 650 miles or about three weeks journey on horseback from Philadelphia.
1313-1375. The Italian
writer and poet, his Filostrato was
used by Chaucer for Troilus and Criseyde,
and his Teseida for the Knight’s Tale. Between 1348 and 1353 he
composed the Decameron, a collection
of a hundred stories told by young people escaping the plague in
Florence in 1348. He met
in 1350, lectured on Dante’s Divine Comedy and founded the first chair of
Greek in Western Europe in Florence.
See the prologue to Decameron for the
plague of 1348 in Florence.
Anicius Manlius Severinus
480?-524. A Roman
scholar, Christian philosopher, and statesman, he became consul in 510 and
subsequently chief minister to the Ostrogothic king Theodoric. Accused of
treason and condemned to death, he wrote his Neoplatonic The Consolation of
Philosophy while in prison awaiting execution. The work was extremely
popular and influential throughout the Middle Ages. He is also known for his
translations of works of Greek logic and mathematics, including those of
Porphyry and Aristotle. His translations and commentaries were among the basic
texts of medieval Scholasticism.
Put to death at Pavia on Theodoric’s orders.
Nicolas-Didier the Younger (Didino)
The son of Nicolas, his mother dying
when he three years old he was brought up by his father. He became a painter
also and continued to live in Italy.
Nicolas-Didier the Elder
1755-1839 Painter of historical scenes, resident at
Called to see Madame de Beaumont in 1803.
Chateaubriand meets him again in 1828.
née Louise-Eléonore-Charlotte-Adélaïde d’Osmond, Comtesse de
1781-1866. A Memoir writer, she was Lady-in-waiting to
Madame Adélaide and a friend of
Madame Rècamier. At the Restoration,
having separated from her husband, she accompanied her father who became Ambassador to
(1816-1818), and enhanced his Embassy.
Emigrated to London.
Her involvement in the events of July 1830.
1636-1711. Poet and critic, his Satires were published in 1666. He was friends with Molière, Racine
and other leading writers. L’Art poétique
of 1674 was seen as a definitive guide to classical literary principles, and had
great influence in France and England. He also wrote a mock epic, Le Lutrin (1674) and translated
Longinus’ On the Sublime.
Chateaubriand’s writing exercise: the opening two lines of Boileau’s Ninth
Satire, conforming to good Seventeenth Century usage.
Attacked the Classicising of the French language.
Associated with Guillaume de Lamoignon.
His Satires III lines 71-73 cite a hazy wine from the Auvergne.
The reference is to his Art poétique:III.20
A reference to his Épitres VII (1701:
Epistles, after Horace)
A reference to Epitres VII: À Monsieur Racine.
A parody of the line from the Seven
Against Thebes cited by the Pseudo-Longinus in his treatise On the Sublime (earliest surviving
manuscript 10th century), and translated by Boileau as ‘Tous, la main dans le sang,
jurent de se venger.’
His support for and defence of Racine’s
work. A reference also to Art poétique,
Addison presented his Latin poems to him,
see Johnson’s Life of Addison.
The quotation is from Épitres IV ‘To the King on his passage of the Rhine.’
See Épitres VI:12, regarding the trees
by the Seine.
A modified version of lines from Homer in his translation of Longinus’ On the Sublime (VII). See Iliad
A French name given to the descendants of the fur traders
and native peoples in W Canada, because of their dark complexion. The boisbrûlés, or brûlés, were in the early 19th century an important social group in
the west and were particularly notable in the Red River Settlement and in
Riel’s Rebellion. In the later 19th century they were absorbed into the general
Boisé-Lucas, Delauney, the elder
Host to Armand
de Chateaubriand at Saint-Cast in 1809.
Boisé-Lucas, the younger
Son of Delauney.
Implicated in the Armand
de Chateaubriand case in 1809.
Compromised by Armand’s arrest. He was reprieved and his sentence commuted.
A rich trader of Saint-Malo.
His daughter married the Prince of Carignan.
Boisgelin, Louis-Bruno, Comte de
Marshal, and ‘Baron of the
BkV:Chap7:Sec1 President of the nobility at the States fixed for
29th December 1788.
Boishue, Jean-Baptiste-Rene de Guéhéneuc, Comte de
Father of Louis-Pierre.
Tried to defend his son during fighting in Rennes.
Present in the Army of Princes in 1792.
Son of Jean-Baptiste.
Killed on the streets of Rennes on 27th January 1789.
Abbé François le Métel de
1592-1662. A French
poet, trained as a lawyer, he took orders in 1630 and was made a Canon of
Rouen. He suggested the idea of the Academy to
de Fontarabie, Jean-François
1774-1857. Critic for the Journal des Débats, and a Hellenist of repute. He became professor
of Greek Literature at the Sorbonne in 1813, then took the Chair of Greek at the
Collège de France in 1828.
Advised Chateaubriand regarding Les Martyrs.
1798-1866. Worked with Chateaubriand in
and Verona in 1822, became a Peer
under Louis-Philippe, then a Senator of the Second Empire.
Tersea Gamba, Contessa Guiccioli,
Byron’s mistress, married him in 1851, her second marriage.
d’Anglas. François-Antoine, Comte de
1756-1826. A member
and President of the Convention, noted for his firmness and coolness during the
frenzy of the Revolution: one day the Parisian mob burst in upon the
Convention, shot dead a young deputy, Féraud,
‘sweeping the members of it before them to the upper-bench ... covered, the
president sat unyielding, like a rock amongst the waves; they menaced him,
levelled muskets at him, he did not yield; they held up Féraud’s bloody head to
him; with a grave, stern air he bowed to it, and did not yield’. He became a
senator and commander of the Legion of Honour under Napoleon; and was made a peer by Louis XVIII.
His coolness on 1st Prairial (20th May
Boisteilleul, Hyacinthe-Eugène-Pierre de Ravenel du
1784-1867 Son of Jean-Baptiste.
Cousin and nephew by marriage of Chateaubriand. Pupil at the Polytechnique in
1803 and 1805, officer in the Grand Army, decorated at Smolensk in 1812, captain in 1813, retired
from the service in 1814, in order to marry.
Married Zoé de Farcy de Montvallon, Chateaubriand’s niece of whom he was
himself a distant cousin, on 16th
Boisteilleul, Jean-Baptiste, Comte Ravenel de
1738-1815. Uncle of Chateaubriand. Vice-Admiral. The nephew
of the Dames de Plancoët, and the cousin
germane of Madame de Chateaubriand.
Married 1780, retired from the service 1785.
as Chateaubriand’s mentor at Brest in 1783.
Boisteilleul, Jean-Baptiste-Joseph-Eugène de Ravenel du
Son of Jean-Baptiste.
Cousin of Chateaubriand
de Farcy de Montavallon, Madame de Ravenel du
1784-1814. Wife of Hyacinthe, daughter of Julie de Farcy,
niece of Chateaubriand.
Boisteilleul, Suzanne-Émilie de Ravenel du
1704-1794 Sister of Bénigne-Marie
du Bedée, she was the great-aunt of Chateaubriand.
Lived with Chateaubriand’s grandmother at what is
now 43 Rue de l’Abbaye, Plancoët.
Description of their life there.
Present at the Ascension Day mass.
BkXLI:Chap2:Sec1 BkXLII:Chap6:Sec1 Mentioned.
A reference to The Sparrow-hawk song
(Boiardo), Matteo Maria
1430-1494. He was an
Italian Renaissance poet. He is remembered for his poem of chivalry and romance
BkXL:Chap1:Sec1 He was born at Reggio.
c1507-1536. The second wife (from 1533) of Henry VIII, her only child became Elizabeth I. She was accused of
treason, and adultery, and executed. BkXII:Chap5:Sec1 Legend
has it that Henry waited on the mound in Pembroke Lodge Gardens in Richmond
Park for sight of a signal rocket from the Tower indicating her execution.
Henry St-John, 1st Viscount
1678-1851. An English statesman, he entered
parliament in 1701, and in 1704 became secretary of war. He afterwards became
secretary of state for foreign affairs, and negotiated the Treaty of Utrecht.
In 1712, a favourite of Queen Anne, he was raised to the peerage. On the
accession of George I, in 1714, he was impeached of high treason when he fled
the country, and became secretary of state to the first pretender. He was
attainted, and his estate seized; but in 1723 he was permitted to return. His
estates were restored, but he was not allowed to sit in parliament. He wrote
against the ministry, and his productions were admired for their eloquence and
vigor. He again withdrew to France in 1735, but returned to England on the death of his father.
His comments on exile.
1783-1830. A South-American soldier and statesman, he was known
as the Liberator. The son of a wealthy Venezuelan Creole family, he returned to
Latin America in 1807 after travel in Europe. He liberated New Granada from Spain
in 1819, renaming it Colombia. He became President, and liberated Venezuela and
Quito (Ecuador) in 1821. Latin America was finally freed
from Spain by
campaigns in Peru,
and Upper Peru took the name Bolivia
in his honour. He died without creating the united Andean
Republic of his dreams.
Chateaubriand mentions meeting him.
Bolivar had recognised Leo XII in a speech
in Bogota on the 28th of October 1827, and in a letter to
the Pope of the 7th of November.
The city in northern Italy
is the capital of Emilia-Romagna.
It dates from Etruscan times and became a free city in the Middle Ages. Charles
V was crowned here in 1530. The university was founded in 1088.
Pius VII passed through in 1814.
The Chateaubriands were there in September 1828.
The Italian Legazione was a major
administrative division of the Papal States
ruled by a Cardinal legate during the 18th and 19th centuries. In the mid-19th
century, on the eve of Italian unification, there were four such legations:
(including Ferrara and Romagna),
Urbino (covering the Marche),
(covering Umbria), and Velletri
(covering southern Lazio).
Bolsena is a crater
lake of central Italy, of volcanic origin. The lake lies within the northern
part of the province of Viterbo called Alto Lazio (‘Upper Latium’) or Tuscia.
It is bordered mostly by the Roman consular road the Via Cassia.
Amalasuntha was exiled to the
of Martana in the lake.
Orde-Powlett, 2nd Baron
1782-1850. He was the 2nd Baron Bolton of
Present at the Literary Fund annual meeting in 1822.
Bolzona, for Bolzano?
Bolzano is a
city in the Trentino-South Tyrol region of Italy.
It is the capital of the Autonomous Province of Bolzano. The ancient
Runkelstein castle is sited there, with its superb medieval frescoes.
The Comte de Bolzona mentioned.
The capital of Maharashtra and the
main sea port on the western coast. Ceded to the Portuguese in 1534, it passed
to Charles II of England
in 1661, and to the British East India Company in 1668.
A destination for young men wishing for a colonial career. Samuel and William Sutton both
became army officers.
Cap Bon also Watan el-kibli, is a peninsula in
1758-1799. A Napoleonic general, prominent in Italy
and Egypt, he
was mortally wounded at Acre, May 1799.
Present at the execution of prisoners at Jaffa
Killed at Acre.
Present at the exhumation of the Duc d’Enghien, 26th March 1816.
Louis Gabriel Ambroise, Vicomte de
1754-1840. A French philosopher and politician: disliking
the Revolution, he emigrated in 1791, joined the Army of the Princes, and soon
afterwards settled at Heidelberg.
There he wrote his first important work, the highly conservative Theorie du
pouvoir politique et religieux (1796), which was condemned by the Directory.
Returning to France
he found himself an object of suspicion, and was obliged to live in retirement.
In 1806 he was associated with Chateaubriand in the conduct of the Mercure
de France, and two years later was appointed councillor of the
University which he had often
attacked. After the Restoration he was a member of the council of public
instruction, and from 1815 to 1822 sat in the chamber as deputy. His speeches
were on the extreme conservative side; he even advocated a literary censorship.
In 1822 he was made minister of state, and presided over the censorship
commission. In the following year he was made a peer, a dignity which he lost
through refusing to take the oath in 1830. From 1816 he had been a member of
the Academy. He took no part in public affairs after 1830, but retired to his
seat at Le Monna, where he died. Bonald was one of the leading writers of the theocratic
or traditionalist school. His writings are mainly on social and political
philosophy, and are based ultimately on one great principle, the divine origin
A returning émigré in 1801. A friend of Chateaubriand and Madame de Beaumont.
The man described.
An exemplar of the new nineteenth century literary style.
Chateaubriand’s article on his La
Législation primitive, appeared in Le
Mercure 20th November 1802 and 8th
He collaborated with Chateaubriand on the Conservateur, in 1818.
Various genealogies for the family known to Chateaubriand are
The genealogy of the family.
Bonaparte, Caroline see
1746-1785. Napoleon’s father. A Corsican noble and
Bonaparte, Charles-Louis-Napoléon, Napoleon III
President of France from 1849 to 1852, he
was then Emperor of the French under the name Napoléon III from 1852 to 1870. The youngest son of Louis Bonaparte.
1802-1807. The eldest son of Louis
Elisa, see Madame
Bonaparte, Elisabeth, née
as ‘Betsy’, she was the daughter of a Baltimore merchant, William, born in Ireland, who had emigrated to North America prior to the American Revolutionary War.
A Catholic, he was the wealthiest man in Maryland after Charles Carroll of
Carrollton, a signer of the Declaration of Independence. She married Jérôme Bonaparte in Baltimore
1803, but was later deserted by him.
Napoleon ordered his brother back to France and had the marriage
annulled. Jerome returned to France with Betsy but she was denied landing in
continental Europe. She gave birth to a son in 1805, in London. Jerome gave in
to his brother, returned to the French Navy and married the German princess Catharina
of Württemberg. Betsy returned to Baltimore with her son, Jerome Napoleon
Bonaparte and lived with her father. After Waterloo she returned to Europe
where she was well received and much admired for her beauty and wit. In 1815,
by special Act of the Legislature of Maryland, she secured a divorce. Her last
years were spent in Baltimore in the management of her estate, the value of
which she increased to one and a half million dollars.
Bonaparte, Hortense, née Beauharnais
step-daughter, and Queen of Holland (1806–10), she was the daughter of
Alexandre and Josephine de
Beauharnais, and wife of Louis Bonaparte. She was
the mother of Napoleon III and, by her lover the Comte de Flahaut, of the Duc
de Morny. She was made Duchesse de Saint Leu by Louis XVIII.
Napoleon’s comment on her in 1815.
1784-1860, King of Westphalia, then
Comte de Montfort. Napoleon’s
youngest brother, he spent the period from 1793-99 at school in Juilly.
Napoleon then placed him in the Consular Guard, but transferred him to the Navy
in 1800. He then served in the West
Indies until 1803. Before leaving
for France, he married Elizabeth Patterson in Baltimore, though Napoleon refused to recognise the marriage. Jérôme
continued to serve in the Navy until 1806, when Napoleon made him a general of
division, and gave him the command of a corps of Bavarians and Würtembergers.
He campaigned with them in Silesia.
After the treaty of Tilsit, Jérôme was placed on the throne of the new kingdom
of Westphalia, with the daughter of the King of Württemberg as his
queen. In 1812 he took part in the campaign in Russia at the head of a Westphalian corps. He was forced to leave
his kingdom in 1813, and lived in Switzerland, then Trieste. During the Hundred Days, he commanded a division and took
part in the battle of Waterloo. After the
final fall of his brother, he spent thirty years in exile. When he returned to France he became governor of Les Invalides, and in 1850 became a
Marshal of France. He is buried in the Invalides.
of Westphalia from 1807.
Recognised as King of Westphalia by Russia
disapproval and annulment of his marriage.
Passed through Blois on his way to Switzerland
He assaulted and took the farm of La Haye-Saint at Waterloo
In Rome in 1828.
In Rome in 1829. He took the title
Jérôme de Montfort in exile.
1768-1844, King of Naples
(1806), King of Spain
(1808-13). Napoleon’s brother, and the
eldest of the children of Carlo and Letizia to survive infancy. Having gained
some note as French minister to Parma
and Rome, he became (1797) a member
of the Council of Five Hundred for Corsica. Joseph later
negotiated a treaty (1800) with the United
States and represented France
in the peace negotiations at Lunéville (1801) and Amiens
(1802). When Napoleon became emperor, Joseph bitterly protested being left out
of the line of succession. In 1806 Napoleon made him king of Naples,
which Joseph administered very inefficiently, and in 1808 he was made king of Spain
instead. Thoroughly unsuccessful in defending his throne during the Peninsular
War, he reluctantly abdicated in 1813. From 1815 to 1841 he lived mainly in the
United States at
He died in Italy.
Napoleon I was born a year after Joseph, in 1769.
King of Spain
Married Mademoiselle Clary in 1794.
At Antibes with Napoleon and Lucien in 1794.
Correspondence with Napoleon in 1798.
Made King of Naples and the Two
Sicilies in March 1806.
Recognised as King of Naples by Russia
became King of Spain,
6th June 1808. The Spanish people nicknamed him Pepe Botella (‘Joe Bottle’) pointing
to an alleged tendency to drunkenness. His supporters were called josefinos.
Bernadotte married his wife’s sister.
Commandant of Paris
in 1814. He had returned to France
Passed through Blois on his way to Switzerland
26:Sec1 Plotting Napoleon’s return in the Canton of Vaud in 1815.
Embarked for the United States
His project for a monument to Tasso
Bonaparte, Maria-Laetitia (Letizia) Romolino, called Madame Mère
c1750-1836. Napoleon Bonaparte’s
mother, she married Carlo-Maria Bonaparte in
1764. After Napoleon’s downfall she retired to Rome.
She was given the name Madame Mère at Napoleon’s court.
Fled Corsica for Marseille
Given sanctuary in Rome by Pius VII in 1814.
Passed through Blois on her way to Rome
26:Sec1 She visited her son on Elba.
In Paris during the Hundred Days.
Decazes was her secretary at one time.
Louis, King of Holland
close to his brother Napoleon during his
early successes, Louis served with his brother in Italy
fighting at Caldiero, Arcola and Rivoli. In 1805, he was given command of the
French troops in Holland and within
a year was crowned king of that nation. He fought the British during the Walcheren
expedition and took a real interest in his adopted country's welfare. This
brought about a split with Napoleon over the Continental System of trade and he
gave up his crown in 1810. Louis then travelled Europe
before retiring to Italy.
He had one marriage, an arranged and unhappy one with Napoleon’s step-daughter Hortense Beauharnais.
of Holland from 1806.
Recognised as King of Holland by Russia
Napoleon took back the kingdom in 1810.
Lucien, Prince de Canino
1775-1840. A brother of Napoleon,
he first became prominent as President of the Council of Five Hundred. He took
an important part in the coup of 18th Brumaire (1799); The Directory was
overthrown, and Napoleon became First Consul. However, Lucien was critical of
his brother’s policies and married a commoner against Napoleon's wishes. He
went to live in Italy
under the protection of Pope Pius VII, who
made him prince of Canino. When Napoleon made the pope a prisoner, Lucien
attempted to flee (1810) to the United States
but was captured at sea by the British and interned in England.
He returned to Italy
in 1814 and became reconciled with Napoleon, who was then in Elba. Lucien returned to France
during the Hundred Days, and after Waterloo
he tried to secure the throne for Napoleon II. He died in exile in Italy.
Chateaubriand was introduced to him in 1801, though Lucien did not return from
his posting as Ambassador to Madrid
until the end of that year.
He read the proofs of Le Génie
in early 1802 and reported in favour of the work.
dinner given for his brother, Napoleon,
after the Concordat of 1801-2 (which reaffirmed the Catholic Church as France’s
major religion) which was ratified by the Legislative Body July 16th 1802. Chateaubriand saw Napoleon
Copied his brother’s manuscript history.
The Memoirs (1816, second edition
1836.) are of doubtful authenticity.
His role on the 18th/19th Brumaire.
Suggested as Interior Minister in 1815.
In Paris during the Hundred Days.
Supported the abdication, and the recognition of Napoleon’s son on the 22nd June 1815.
Las Cases corresponded with him
from St Helena.
Bonaparte, Marie-Julie Clary, Madame Joseph
1771-1845. The daughter of François Clary (1725-1794) a rich
silk merchant of Marseilles, she
married Joseph Bonaparte, in 1794. Her sister
Désirée married Bernadotte.
BkXIX:Chap6:Sec1 Her marriage.
Chateaubriand issued her with a passport in 1823.
Bonaparte, Christine Boyer, Madame Lucien
1773-1800. She was the illiterate daughter of Lucien Bonaparte’s landlord daughter, and married Lucien
Her tomb in Lucien’s garden at Plessis-Chamant.
Bonaparte, Napoléon, see
1804-1831. The second son of Louis
Bonaparte, he died of measles at Forli.
translation of his ancestor’s Sac de
Rome, écrit en 1527 by Jaques Bonaparte, témoin oculaire, was printed in
Bonaparte, Pauline, see
Bonaparte et des Bourbons, De
A work by Chateaubriand, published in 1814. A brilliant and
effective pamphlet, it was said by Louis XVIII
to be worth an army of a hundred thousand men to the Bourbon cause; and upon
their re-establishment Chateaubriand was immediately in favour, and was made a
member of the Chamber of Peers.
BkXXII:Chap9:Sec1 BkXXII:Chap10:Sec1 He
was writing it in December 1813. Note that the Allies entered Paris
in March 1814. Napoleon abdicated in the
April and was exiled to Elba.
It was advertised in the Journal des Débats of the 4th
April 1814, and available the following day.
Charles-Melchior Arthur, Marquis de
1760-1793. French general, born in Anjou,
served in the American war; became one of the chiefs of the Vendéan army; fell
at the battle of Cholet, and when
dying, relented over the blood already shed; reputedly ordered the release of
5000 prisoners which his party, in their revenge, was about to massacre.
BkXI:Chap3:Sec2 BkXXXV:Chap3:Sec1 Mentioned.
Widow of the Marquis. Her death
Pierre-Marie Taillepied, Comte de
1766-1847. A former Chamberlain of Napoleon’s, he was
Prefect of the Rhône in 1810, then of the Seine in 1815.
He was a Liberal Deputy under the restoration, returning to the Prefecture in
1830. He was named a Peer in 1832.
Chateaubriand writes to him on 16th
Bondy, Madame de
The wife of Pierre-Marie, in 1830?
Brings news to Louis-Philippe at Neilly on the 27th of July 1830.
(1294–1303). An Italian (b. Anagni) Benedetto Caetani, he was successor to St.
Celestine V. Boniface’s contest with Philip
IV of France was the principal feature of his career. In 1303 Philip sent Nogaret to Italy,
proclaiming his intention of deposing the pope. Nogaret found the pope at Anagni
and harassed him; the pope stood firm and according to tradition was slapped by
Nogaret’s companion, Sciarra Colonna. The
outraged people of Anagni thereupon drove out the attackers; Boniface was
rescued and escorted to Rome. He
died within a month. He is the Pope at the time of Dante’s vision in the Divine Comedy (April
Chateabriand compares Pius VII’s fate to
that of Boniface.
1802-1828. An English Romantic landscape painter,
his family moved to Paris in 1818, and his works were exhibited at the
Paris Salon from 1822. He was a significant influence on the
Romantic School. He died of tuberculosis in London.
His views of Venice (he was there in 1826) were exhibited at the
Paris Salons of 1827 and 1828.
A Swiss patriot and historian, his life
was the inspiration for Byron’s 1816 poem The
Prisoner of Chillon. Bonivard opposed Charles III, Duke of Savoy in his
efforts to control Geneva; the duke captured Bonivard and imprisoned him at Grolée
from 1519 to 1521. In 1530, after further political activism, the duke
imprisoned him again, this time underground in the Castle of Chillon. Bonivard
was released by the Bernese when they conquered Vaud in 1536.
Charles-François, Marquis de
1750-1825. He represented the nobility of the
in the States-general then emigrated in 1792. A colleague of Chateaubriand in
the Chamber of Peers after the Restoration, he was his predecessor at the Berlin Embassy (1816-1820). He was a friend of the Duc de
Richelieu and approved his measures against the Ultras.
Wrote letters attacking Chateaubriand, left in the archives.
Chateaubriand succeeds him in Berlin
A Frenchman who died in
America c. 1822.
Abbé Pierre-Étienne de
1761-1849. Returned from eastern Prussia
at the start of the Consulate and was appointed in January 1803 as canon and chief
curate of Lyons. He accompanied
Cardinal Fesch to Rome
where he remained until April 1804. A faithful friend of Chateaubriand.
Called to Madame de Beaumont’s deathbed.
In Lyons in August 1805.
Ange Elisabeth Louis Antoine
1749-1799. A French diplomatist, he was a member of the Convention,
where he voted with the majority. During the Directory he was charged with
diplomatic missions, first to Lille
and then to the congress of Rastadt in October 1797. On the 28th of April 1799 the plenipotentiaries on
leaving Rastadt were assailed at the gates of the town by Hungarian hussars,
probably charged to secure their papers. Bonnier and one of his colleagues
Claude Roberjot, were killed. The other, Jean Debry, was wounded.
BkXXXIX:Chap19:Sec1 His work on the Procuratie
Vecchie in Venice.
Governor of the Île Sainte-Marguerite
according to Chateaubriand’s retelling of a legend concerning Buonaparte.
1745-1832. A traveller, and acquaintance of the Coppet group, he was in Rome
in 1774, and returned in 1802-1803. Chateabriand met him in 1831 in Geneva
where he lived, a few months before his death.
His Voyage sur la scène des six derniers
livres de l’Enéide, published in Geneva
at the end of 1804.
The city in south-west France,
was the Roman Burdigala. Capital of the Gironde on the
River Garonne. A major Atlantic seaport, it became the
capital of Aquitania (later Aquitaine)
but declined after the collapse of the Roman Empire. It
flourished again under English rule (1154-1453), became a centre of the Fronde
in the 17th century, and of the Girondins
during the Revolution.
Chateaubriand was there in 1802. The Gallo-Roman
was pulled down in 1674. The Chateau de Trompette fort stood on what is now the
Place des Quinconces.
Chateaubriand there in 1807.
Henri de France, Duc de: See also Henry V
1820-1883. Posthumus son of the Duc de Berry, he was the grandson of Charles X.
His christening on 1st May 1821.
The Duc de Montmorency
appointed as his tutor in 1826.
Mentioned in 1830.
Étienne Tardif, Comte de
Brigadier General in 1807, he became Inspector General of Cavalry under Louis
XVIII in 1814. He was loyal to the King during the Hundred Days. In 1823 he
contributed to the blockade of Cadiz and then the taking of Trocadéro. A Peer of
France he was commader of the Royal Guard in 1830. He later rallied to the July
A strolling actor from Paris,
he was famous for his role as Harlequin.
He was a revolutionary, hanged with Jourdain, a lawyer from Lisieux, for
causing a riot at Rouen in August 1789.
1495-1570. A Venetian painter, he was a pupil of Titian, and his work is sometimes mistaken for
that of Titian.
The North Wind in Greek mythology.
Pauline Bonaparte, Princess
favourite sister, known as Marie-Paulette. A woman of great beauty, she was the
subject of considerable scandal. She accompanied her husband, General Leclerc,
on the expedition to Haiti.
After Leclerc’s death Napoleon arranged her marriage (August 1803) to Camillo
Borghèse, a member of the Roman nobility. They soon separated, however.
Pauline, made Princess of Guastalla in 1806, fell into temporary disfavour with
her brother because of her hostility to Empress Marie Louise, yet when
Napoleon’s fortune turned, Pauline showed herself more loyal than his other
sisters and brothers.
Rome in November 1803.
Lent her family hearse for Madame de Beaumont’s
Fréron wished to marry her, but was
disappointed. Junot was also enamoured of
26:Sec1 She visited her brother, Napoleon, on Elba.
She held a ball to conceal Napoleon’s departure from Elba
on the night of the 25th-26th February
She wished to join Napoleon on St Helena.
She died in Florence.
She died near Florence on the 9th of June 1825.
A town and
episcopal see of Emilia, Italy, in the province of Parma, 14 miles or so
north-west of Parma. Pop. (1901). It occupies the site of the ancient Fidentia,
on the Via Aemilia
The Chateaubriands were there in September 1828.
A town in Belarus,
it is on the Berezina River
at its confluence with the Skha.
The loss of the bridgehead there. Chichagov was positioned in the town.
Carlo (Saint Charles)
1538-1584. Archbishop of
he was born and spent his early years in the
Castle of Arona.
His tomb is in the crypt of Milan Cathedral.
His charity during the plague in Milan
Battle of the
On September 7, 1812,
or August 26 in the Julian calendar then used in Russia, Borodino also called
the Battle of the Moskva, was
the largest and bloodiest single-day battle of the Napoleonic Wars, involving
more than a quarter of a million soldiers. It was fought by the French Grande
Armée under Napoleon and the Russian army of Alexander I near the village
of Borodino, west of the town of Mozhaysk. The battle ended with inconclusive
tactical results for both armies, and only strategic considerations forced the
Russians to withdraw.
Description of the battle.
Latour-Maubourg wounded there.
The carnage on the battlefield.
Napoleon the victor, as opposed to Alexander the defeated.
A source of major French losses.
A town 106km north of Kaluga
it is 80km southwest of Moscow.
Napoleon’s army passed it in retreat 22nd
October 1812 and returned to it on the 26th.
The strait, separating Europe and Asia,
connects the Black Sea with the Sea of
(Constantinople) is at its southern end.
BkXXI:Chap4:Sec2 BkXXIX:Chap13:Sec4 Mentioned.
1627-1704. A French prelate, he was one of the greatest
orators in French history. At an early age he was made a canon at Metz; he
became bishop of Condom and was (1670-81) tutor to the dauphin (father of Louis XV), for whom he wrote his great Discourse
on Universal History (1681, tr. 1778, 1821), Politics Derived from Holy
Writ (1709), and Treatise of the Knowledge of God and One's Self (1722).
In 1681 he became bishop of Meaux. Unrivalled for his eloquence, he is
celebrated for his Funeral Orations (1689), particularly those on Henrietta of England, on her daughter, and
on Condé, which are masterpieces of
their kind. He was also a great moralist, a magnificent stylist, and a powerful
controversialist, brilliantly attacking Fénelon
and the quietists, the Jesuits, and the Protestants.
Chateaubriand refers to his Sermons de Virtue of which the most
celebrated is that for the profession of Madame de La Vallière, preached in 1674.
He was opposed by Le Père Simon.
Chateaubriand quotes a version of Bossuet’s celebrated funeral oration for the
Prince de Condé.
Imitated Cicero’s oratorical manner.
Another reference to his Oraison funèbre
de Louis de Bourbon (Funeral Oration for the Great Condé), his last, given
on the 10th March 1687 in
Notre-Dame. The italicised phrases are quotations from it.
A letter from Fénelon perhaps addressed to
de Bossuet of 1814.
The Gallicans were French Roman Catholics following Bossuet and claiming partial autonomy (the opposite
A quotation from the Universal History
A reference to his Easter sermon preached at Meaux 22nd April 1685.
A modification of lines from Bossuet’s Funeral
Oration for Henrietta of England.
His work on religious unification.
The reference is to his Funeral Oration
for Queen Marie-Thérèse, of 1st
September 1683. The French had bombarded Algiers on the 28th of October 1681.
A slight misquotation from the Funeral
Oration for the Prince de Condé.
A reference to the Funeral Oration for
the Prince de Condé.
A re-working of a passage from his ‘Sermon
de mauvais riche’ 5th March 1662.
The capital of Massachusetts
on Massachusetts Bay, it was founded in 1630 by English
Puritans, and prospered as the main colony of the Massachusetts Bay Company. It
became a centre of opposition to the British prior to the American Revolution,
in 1774. It was a leading force in the anti-slavery movement during the 1830’s.
Chateaubriand travelled the 340 kilometres from New York to visit the battlefield at Lexington nearby.
An inlet of the Tasman Sea in
it was the site of Captain Cook’s first
landing in 1770. A convict settlement planned there in 1788 was moved to Port
Jackson five miles north. The Bay is now surrounded by the suburbs of Sydney.
After the assassination of Guise by Henri III, Boucher, curé of
Saint-Benoît, popularized an opinion of the Sorbonne in his book ‘De justa Henriei Tertii abdicatione’, in
which be maintained that Henry III, ‘as a perjurer, assassin, murderer, a
sacrilegious person, patron of heresy, simoniac, magician, impious and
damnable’, could be deposed by the Church; that, as ‘a perfidious waster of the
public treasure, a tyrant and enemy of his country’, he could be deposed by the
people. One of the most important writers on Leaguer political thought in
France in the 16th century, the central issue in his work was that of royal
succession. Boucher became so influential in the Catholic League, as a preacher
and author of polemical works, that he was called ‘the one-eyed king’ of
Borrowing from Huguenot works, he asserted that both the Church and the People
had a right and an obligation to depose Henry III as a tyrant. The People’s
right was based on common law, in which it was clear that the people are
superior to the monarchy, which they created, and they elect each new king.
Thus, they can depose a king who is harming their interests. The Pope, as the
supreme authority in religion, also has the power to depose a king and order
the election of a new dynasty. He added a new conclusion after Henry III’s
assassination, praising Jacques Clément
as the new David killing Goliath, and proclaimed that the Estates must meet
quickly to elect a Catholic king.
He is mentioned as assisting in the granting of Chateaubriand’s application to
enrol in the order of Malta.
Sailor, Soldier, Statesman and Mathematician, he founded the first settlement
in the Iles Malouines (Falkland Islands); led a voyage around the world in the
1760s; he fought in the American War of Independence; wrote mathematical
treatises and was elected to scientific academies, and survived a duel and the
French Revolution to become a friend of Napoleon, and grow roses. After his
death in 1811 he had islands, mountains and plants named after him.
Chateaubriand mentions meeting him.
Marie-Louise Carrère, Marquise de
c1780-1869. A Creole from
Martinique, she married Comte Francois-Marie-Michel de
Bouilleé (1779-1853), Marshal, Governor of Martinique and Peer under the Restoration. She had followed
the Duchesse de Berry to England.
Prague in 1833.
Bouillon, Godefroy de
1061?-1100. A Crusader,
Duke of Lower Lorraine, he fought for the Holy Roman Emperor Henry IV against
Pope Gregory VII and against Rudolf of Swabia and was rewarded (c.1082) with
the duchy of Lower Lorraine, which he claimed through his mother. With his
brothers Eustace and Baldwin, he was among those who set out (1096) for
on the First Crusade. On the way to Constantinople, he
allowed his army to pillage the countryside, but after his arrival he made
peace (Jan., 1097) with the Byzantine emperor, Alexius I. He played a minor
role at Nicaea and Antioch,
but achieved prominence in the siege of Jerusalem
(1099) and was elected ruler of the city after its capture. Having refused the
title of king on religious grounds, he was designated defender of the Holy
Sepulchre. He won the battle of Ascalon (1099) and brought several Syrian towns
under tribute. Godfrey was distinguished for his piety and simplicity. As the
first Latin ruler of Jerusalem, he
became the central figure of various legends, and his deeds were glorified in
the Chansons de Geste. His brother,
Baldwin I, succeeded him as ruler of Jerusalem
and took the title of king.
Bouillon, Philipe d’Auvergne, Prince de
1754-1816. Rear-Admiral of the Blue in the English Navy
(1804), a native of Jersey, he had been
adopted by the last Duke (whose cousin he was and who only had a handicapped
son) in 1789. In 1814-1815, before the decrees of the
Vienna Congress were known he made an attempt to revive the ancient Duchy (in
the Ardennes). The people recognised him and Louis XVIII was in agreement but the Congress
assigned Bouillon to the Netherlands.
Protector of the French refugees in Jersey in 1793, at
which time he held the rank of captain in the English Navy (from 1784).
A village in Brittany,
part of the titled estates of Chateaubriand’s father.
Day labourer at
BkIV:Chap5:Sec1 Attested to the death of Chateaubriand’s
Unable to write so could not sign the death register.
A city of northern France
on the English Channel north-northwest of Amiens,
of Celtic origin, it is the leading fishing port
Napoleon’s ambitious scheme to invade England
was devised in July 1803. It involved not only the French Army and Navy but
also the construction of a special invasion ﬂotilla. These vessels would
transport men, horses, ammunition and artillery across the English
Channel. Despite its difficult tides and lack of facilities,
was chosen as the key departure port. By the end of 1804, over 150,000 men were
stationed at the camp there and some 2000 vessels were assembled ready for
invasion. There were a series of magnificent ceremonies designed to boost
morale, including presentations of the Legion of Honour.
A major military camp in 1830.
1747-1825. Journalist and Chaplain to Napoleon and Bishop of Troyes from 1808 and
Baron of the Empire, 1809 he was made a Peer and Comte from 1822. He was one of
the foremost religious orators of his day.
His reaction to Le Génie.
Present at the
exhumation of the Duc d’Enghien, 26th March 1816.
BkXVI:Chap5:Sec1 One of the original grave-diggers.
The Bourbon dynasty originated in Bourbonnais,
now Allier, central France.
It acquired Ducal status in 1272 when Agnès Bourbon married the sixth son of Louis IX. The first Bourbon King was
Henry IV (1589-1610), and the
house continued to rule until the Revolution (1792) They were restored after
the defeat of Napoleon in 1814 but again
expelled in 1830 in favour of a cadet branch which ruled until the 1848
Revolution. Louis XIV’s grandson became
Philip V of Spain
(1700) and the Bourbons ruled there until the abdication of Alfonso XIII in
1931. His grandson Juan Carlos was restored to the throne in 1975. Bourbons
ruled Sicily and Naples
between 1743 and 1860.
Chateaubriand is being ironic regarding Bourbon hopes of return to the throne,
since this was written after 1818.
Bourbon County, Kentucky.
Bourbon, Charles III de Bourbon-Montpensier, 8th Duke and Constable de
1490-1527. Constable of France who became estranged from and
subsequently opposed François I.
He was killed while heading the assault on Rome.
BkXXX:Chap2:Sec2 BkXXX:Chap12:Sec1 Mentioned.
Louis Henri, Duc de
1692-1740. He was First Minister of Louis XV from 1723 to
Bourbon, Louis-Henri-Joseph, Last Duc de
1756-1830. Father of the Duc d’Enghien, on his own father’s
death in 1818 he inherited but did not assume the Condé title. As he had no
heirs, he left the residue of the Condé inheritance (after splendid bequests to
his mistress) to Henri d’Orléans, duc d’Aumale. Within a few months he was
found hanging from a window fastening in his bedroom at Saint-Leu Taverney, the
magnificent estate that he had bought six years earlier.
The post of tutor to him.
Leading the French corps with Clairfayt
met him in London in 1798. Chantilly is the town and castle (later
rebuilt) north of Paris on the site
owned by the Great Condé, and
inherited by Louis.
Warned his son on June 16 1803
of his possible arrest.
wish for silence regarding his son’s execution.
His will left Chantilly and the bulk of
his fortune to the Duc d’Aumale, Louis-Philippe’s fifth son. The rest
went to his mistress the Baronne de Feuchères.
Swears allegiance to the Charter in March 1815. Chateaubriand suggested he
might leave for the Vendée.
Chateaubriand discussed his marriage prospects with the King.
Bourbon, Charles-Louis de, Duke of Lucca, then of Parma
After Napoleon’s fall in 1815 the House of
Bourbon was not restored to the Duchy of Parma, but the duchy was given to
Marie Louise, Napoleon’s wife. Charles Louis
was compensated with the smaller Duchy of
Lucca. Maria Louisa died in 1847 and was
succeeded by Charles Louis as Charles
II of Parma. Lucca was incorporated into the Grand Duchy of Tuscany. On
19 April 1848 Duke Charles II abdicated his Duchy, during the uprisings of that
year. For the rest of his long life (he survived his son), he lived in France as
the Count of Villafranca.
He joined the Society of Jesus at 16 and
taught successively rhetoric, philosophy, and moral theology. He began to
preach in his 33rd year and was so successful that he was invited to appear
before the court no less than 10 times and preached in Paris for 34 consecutive
years. His contemporaries placed him even above Bossuet
and he was called ‘The Preacher of Kings and the King of Preachers.’ The
characteristics of his eloquence were, religious logic, keen psychological
analysis, and fearless apostolic severity.
Associated with Guillaume de Lamoignon.
He was a Municipal Officer of Saint-Servan in 1798.
Signed the death certificate of Chateaubriand’s mother.
Marie-Anne-Henriette Payan de l’Estang, Madame de
1744-1802. A French poetess, born in
Dresden, and three times married, she wrote an Ode
to Silence (1787), which Chateaubriand greatly admired.
de la Crosnière, Jean-Joseph Léonard
1754-1807. A Member of the National Convention, he was
arrested and pardoned and spent the rest of his life in business and public
France, it is the préfecture (capital) of the département of Cher,
and was also the capital of the former province of Berry.
A forest at Combourg
on the Chateaubriand estate.
Louis-August-Victor de Ghaisnes, Comte de
1773-1846. Marshal of France, after an eventful military
career he was Minister of War in 1829.
He was commanding the expedition against Algiers
when the July Revolution broke out in 1830 upon which Bourmont refused
allegiance to Louis Philippe on his accession, and was dismissed from service.
In 1832 Marshal Bourmont took part in the rising of the duchesse de Berry and
on its failure fled to Portugal. He commanded the army of Dom Miguel during the
Liberal Wars and after the victory of the constitutional party he retired to Rome.
At the amnesty of 1840 he returned to France, where he died.
Joined the Cabinet in 1829. His four sons were officers, and Amédée, a
lieutenant in Algeria
was mortally wounded at Sidi-Brahim in July 1830. Another son died in Portugal
serving Dom Miguel.
Leader of the Algerian Expedition. Polignac
acted in his absence at the War Ministry.
His involvement in the Duchesse de Berry’s uprising
(Beurnonville), Pierre de Ruel, Marquis de
1752-1821. Minister of war in February 1793, he denounced
his old commander, Dumouriez,
to the Convention, and was one of the four deputies sent to watch him. Given
over by him to the Austrians on April
3, 1793, Beurnonville was not exchanged until November 1795. He
entered the service again, commanded the armies of the Sambre-et-Meuse and of
the North, and was appointed inspector of infantry of the army of England
in 1798. In 1800 he was sent as ambassador to Berlin,
in 1802 to Madrid. Napoleon made
him a senator and count of the empire. In 1814 he was a Member of the
provisional government organized after the abdication of Napoleon. He followed Louis XVIII to Ghent, and after the second restoration was
made a Marquis and Marshal of France.
A Member of the Provisional Government
François-Adolphe, Comte de
1799-1869 A Diplomat.
Third secretary at the London Embassy.
Bourrienne, Louis-Antoine Fauvelet de,
figure, he was a friend of, and for a time (1797–1802) private secretary to, Napoleon, who made him a Councillor of State.
Bourrienne later supported the Bourbon restoration and was elected to the
chamber of deputies, where he was a spokesman for the ultra-royalist followers
of King Charles X. His memoirs
(10 vol., 1829–31) are vivid but untrustworthy.
Mentions Chateaubriand’s visit in March 1804 to the Tuileries but dates it incorrectly in his Memoirs.
Mentioned as an early friend of Napoleon.
With Napoleon he witnessed the march to the Tuileries of 20th June 1792, when the king allowed the mob
His brother, Fauvelet de Bourrienne, who kept a furniture shop.
The pamphlet was written in Beaucaire in 1793 where Napoleon went to rest after
his regiment took part in the disturbing attack on Avignon. Two men from Marseilles
appear in it, but only one speaks.
Bourrienne was with Napoleon in Paris
in May 1795.
Bourrienne, Madame de
The wife of Fauvelet de
Her additions to her husband’s memoirs.
stock-exchange. Napoleon ordered its creation. It is
situated between the Palais Royal and
the Grands Boulevards in the commercial centre of Paris. He enlisted the
architect Alexandre-Théodore Brongniart (1739-1813) who was known for his
designs of private homes, a theatre and the Hôtel de Condé. The Bourse was the
final work of Brongniart begun in 1807 and completed in 1825. Although he created
all of the designs, he died in 1813 and another architect, Labarre succeeded
him in the project.
Financier, Treasurer of the Navy.
He created the Folie-Boutin, the original Tivoli
Gardens in 1771.
The city of Bouvines is between Lille and Tournai,
in the 13th century in the County of Flanders and now part of France. The Battle of Bouvines, July 27, 1214, was
the first great international conflict of alliances among national forces in
Europe. In the alliances, which were orchestrated by Pope Innocent III, Philip
Augustus of France defeated Otto IV of Germany and count Ferrand of Flanders so
decisively that Otto was deposed and replaced by Frederick II Hohenstaufen.
Ferrand was captured and imprisoned. Philip was himself able to take undisputed
control of the territories of Anjou, Brittany, Maine, Normandy, and the Touraine,
which he had recently seized from Otto’s kinsman and ally John of England.
Pierre-François-Joseph, Adjutant General
1772-1851. He served
with the Army of the Eastern Pyrenees, then with that of Italy, where he was
made chief of staff of La Harpe’s division. Commanded an attack column at Dego
(14 April 1796). He became chief
of staff of Augereau’s division on
January 1797, and was promoted general of brigade. He took part in the
Egypt and into
Syria. After his return
France he was sent to S.
Domingo (in October 1801). While sailing back to
France in 1803, he was
captured by the English. He was allowed back to
France on parole, and in
1809 became Kellermann’s chief of staff. He then served in
Portugal, commanding a
brigade, then a division of dragoons, as a replacement for Montbrun. He took
part in the battles of
Salamanca (22 July 1812) and
Vitoria (June 1813), and
became vice chief of staff to Soult. He fought at the
Bidassoa, and was then recalled to
France by Napoleon,
seeing action at Laon and Arcis-sur-Aube. He commanded the military department
of Mont Blanc during the
Hundred Days. He was proscribed on the Second Restoration. Between 1824 and
1834 he held commands in
North Africa. He passed to the
reserve in 1839, and finally retired in 1848.
BkXIX:Chap14:Sec2 Present at the taking of
Christine, see Madame Lucien
During the French occupation of the Southern
Netherlands in 1795 the old Hapsburg duchy of Brabant
was dissolved. The territory was reorganised in the départements of Deux-Nèthes
(present province of Antwerp)
and Dyle (the later province of
was a province of the United Kingdom
of the Netherlands
from 1815 until 1830 and a Province
of Belgium from 1830.
Gold coins from there.
1786-1871. An American
writer, born in Pittsburgh, he was the
son of the poet Hugh Henry Brackenridge. Admitted to the Pennsylvania
bar in 1806, he moved to St. Louis,
where he was a lawyer and journalist. Among his writings are Views of
Louisiana (1814), part of which was one of the sources of Washington
Irving's Astoria, and
a pamphlet South America (1817), which puts forth
a policy similar to the Monroe Doctrine. Sent to South America
to study political conditions, he recounted his experiences in Voyage to
South America (1819). His Recollections of Persons and Places in the
West (1834) is a valuable historical source.
His History of the late war between the United
States and Great
Britain (1816, reprinted 1817)
d. 1571 The Christian
commander of forces at Famagusta who fell to the Islamic Ottoman Turks in August 1571, was reputedly
The royal house ruled Portugal
from 1640 to 1910, and Brazil
from 1822 to 1889. It took its name from the castle
of Braganza or Bragança. The line
was descended from Alfonso, the natural son of John I of Portugal,
who became the duke of Braganza in 1442.
Jean II in the text denotes Don Maria Jose Luis de Braganza (1769-1826) second
son of Peter III, who exercised the regency in his mother’s name. He decided on
the 24th of November 1807
to take refuge in Brazil.
Proclaimed King as John VI, in March 1816, he did not return to Lisbon
An Italian architect, he introduced the
Early Renaissance style to
the High Renaissance style to
where his most famous design was St. Peter’s Basilica.
BkXXIX:Chap2:Sec3 He designed the tall marbles screen around the
Chiesa della Case in Loreto.
Charlotte de Colbert, Madame de
The daughter of Madame de
she married Antoine-Bufile Comte de Brancas (d. 1842) in 1824.
Lucerne in August 1832 with her mother.
Bréhan, Louis Robert Hippolyte
de, Comte de Plélo
1699-1734. A military
commander, Chateaubriand describes him as ‘diplomat, warrior, poet’. He married
Louise Françoise de la Villière (1707-1737) in 1722. Their sole child, Louise-Félicite
de Plélo, born in 1726, married the Duc d’Aiguillon, and lived to the age of
of the French at Danzig in 1734, he was killed in the battle.
4th century BC. The legendary
Gaulish chieftain overran Italy
and captured Rome c390BC. He
occupied the city but failed to take the Capitol from Marcus Manlius
Capitolinus. According to legend, when the tribute that the Romans had agreed
to pay was being weighed, a Roman complained, whereupon Brennus threw his sword
on the scale, crying: ‘Vae victis! Woe to
A city in the region of Lombardy in
between the Mella and the Naviglio,
Chateaubriand there in September 1833.
The major port and naval base in north-west France, located in a dramatic landscape at
the end of a natural bay, at the west end of the Britanny peninsula.
The military harbor was fortified by
BkII:Chap7:Sec1 BkII:Chap10:Sec2 Mentioned.
Chateaubriand’s arrival there in January 1783. The Naval examinations took
place in April and August.
Arrival of the French squadron in 1783 (April or June).
left Brest in 1784.
The Comte de Plessix-Parscau
was commander of the naval cadet corps there.
Naval officers from there in the émigré army in 1792.
Chateaubriand last saw Gesril there
prior to their meeting again off Jersey.
Armand de Goyon sent there
by Armand de
Chateaubriand to report on its defences.
Troops of the Army against England
Louis-Auguste Le Tonnelier, Baron de
1730-1807. Minister of State under Louis XVI, he fought in the Seven Years War, then in 1758 left the army and joined the
French Foreign Ministry. He was quickly appointed French ambassador to Cologne,
where he proved to have excellent diplomatic skills. Between 1760 and 1783,
Breteuil was ambassador to Russia, Sweden, the Netherlands, Naples and Austria.
After he returned to France, he was appointed Minister of the King's Household.
He was a liberal and humanitarian minister, who moderated the censorship laws. His
time as Household Minister corresponded with the infamous Affair of the
Necklace. His loyalty to Marie Antoinette earned him her gratitude and trust.
On July 24, 1788, Breteuil resigned, exhausted by the struggle for power on the
King’s Council. As France became increasingly unstable, he retired to his
chateau at Dangu. He was appointed Prime
Minister on July 12, 1789 after Necker
was dismissed. In retaliation, the Bastille was stormed on the 14th. After the
fall of the Royal Family he spent his time working for the Royalist cause in
exile. He was allowed to return to France in the 1800s by Napoleon, having made his peace with the
Napoleonic government. He tried to urge other royalists to join him, but he was
Replaced Necker in July 1789.
An early émigré he effectively ran the emigrant nobility but gave way to the
Comte de Provence (later Louis XVIII)
in 1792. The Baronne de Montmorency,
nee Gouyon-Matignon, was his grand-daughter.
A town on the
Normandy coast about a dozen kilometres south of
BkXVIII:Chap7:Sec1 BkXVIII:Chap7:Sec2 Armand landed there in 1809.
or Bruning, Eleonore von,
1771-1841. A friend of the young Beethoven
in Bonn, which Beethoven left in
1792. She married Franz Wegeler in 1802, and subsequently moved to Koblentz.
Beethoven’s letter to her of 2nd
The hundred-handed Giant
in Greek mythology.
BkXXII:Chap 20:Sec3 Mentioned.
or Briand, or Brient
The original family name of Chateaubriand, and of the founders of the barony.
Probably assumed by Thiern (Tihern) as
Brien, the younger son of the ninth Baron, married Jeanne, daughter of Alphonse, King of Aragon. Another?
Brien received the property of Plessis-Bertrand from the Du Guesclin family.
A sailor who assisted Armand de Chateaubriand
The small town is
located in the Aube, east of
on the Aube River, and has an 18th century château.
BkXIX:Chap3:Sec1 BkXIX:Chap5:Sec1 BkXX:Chap13:Sec1
BkXXXVI:Chap7:Sec1 Napoleon spent five
years at the military college there from 1779-1784.
BkXXII:Chap9:Sec1 Napoleon fought Blücher and
there on 1st February 1814. Arguably it was a French defeat, since Napoleon could not
afford the losses.
BkXXIV:Chap10:Sec1 Napoleon remembered Sir James Hall, father
from his days at Brienne.
Henriette Bouthillier Madame de
The daughter of the Comte de Chavigny, she married
Henri-Louis de Loménie, Comte de Brienne, son of the Secretary of State, in
1656. She was a friend of the Princess de Condé.
A city in the canton of Valais, it lies at an ancient
European crossroads where the Simplon Pass crosses the
high Alps into Italy.
The Jesuits were attempting to continue their treaching at the College in Brig
after the re-establishment of the Order in 1814.
Marie Madeleine d’Aubray, Marquise de
c1630-1676. She conspired with her lover, Godin de
Sainte-Croix, an army captain, to poison her father and two brothers in order
to secure the family fortune and to end interference in her adulterous
relationship. Her husband escaped the same fate by his complaisance. An
investigation was made, and the marquise fled abroad, but in 1676 she was
arrested at Liège. The affair greatly worked on the popular imagination, and
there were rumours that she had tried out her poisons on hospital patients. She
was beheaded and then burned.
1771-1827. Jacobin, Deputy to the Council of the Five
Hundred, Commissioner to Elba (autumn 1801-spring 1802).
He left Porto-Ferrajo in January 1804 to continue his administrative career in
the Kingdom of Naples,
where he was involved with the founding of the Carbonari. A friend of the
Comtesse de Clermont-Tonnerre,
at whose house he met Chateaubriand. It was his successor Lelièvre who provided
Bertin with a passport in August 1802.
Briqueville, Armand François Bon Claude, Comte de
1785-1844. Deputy for La Manche (Valognes) from 1827, and
former cavalry Colonel in the Grand Army who fought in many major battles, he
increased the severity of a proposition to banish the elder branch of the
Bourbons, on its second reading. His father had fought for the Bourbons in
but considered them an ungrateful race, and his son espoused the Republic.
Chateaubriand’s pamphlet opposed the proposition.
Charles II, Comte then Duc de Cossé
d. 1621. Charles II de Cossé-Brissac, Marshal of France and
governor of Angiers. A member of the League as early as 1585, he conceived the
idea of making France
a republic after the model of ancient Rome.
He laid his views before the chief Leaguers but none of them approved his plan.
He delivered up Paris, of which he
was governor, to Henry IV in 1594, for which he received the Marshal’s baton.
He died in 1621, at the siege of Saint Jean
Named Governor of Paris by the Duc de Mayenne
he gave up the town to the King in 1594.
Barnabé Brisson was a renowned jurist and
philologist. He was appointed president of the Parliament of Paris in 1588. In
1591, he was hanged by the Seize (the Sixteen), a group of insurgents
who captured Paris in a bizarre coup. The Seize was a political group
that had pretensions of ruling the country; they were advocates for the lower
classes and the restoration of the general council of the League, had some power
within the League and the government in Paris and had even been instrumental in
having Brisson appointed to his parlement post in the first place, three years
earlier. Over time, they felt their demands were being generally ignored by
various sectors of the government. Extremists in their ranks gradually stepped
up the intensity of their actions, and in November 1591 they seized Brisson and
two other conseillers and publicly hanged all three of them. Many of
the Sixteen were soon executed or arrested.
de Warville, Jacques-Pierre
revolutionary and journalist. He began his career by writing numerous pamphlets
and books. His Théorie des lois criminelles (1781) was a plea for penal
reform. He was imprisoned briefly in the Bastille for writing a seditious
pamphlet. Brissot visited the Netherlands,
and the United States.
He was interested in humanitarian schemes and founded the abolitionist Société des Amis des Noirs. After his
return to France
in 1789 he began to edit the Patriote français, which later became an
organ of the Girondists (at first called
Brissotins). Brissot, feeling that war would spread the principles of the
French Revolution, did much to foment it with his diatribes against Europe's
monarchs. In the Legislative Assembly his great influence on the conduct of foreign
affairs contributed to the French declaration of war on Austria
in 1792. After the fall of the monarchy, a power struggle between two groups
ensued, and the Girondists were defeated. The Jacobin
victory over the Girondists resulted in his execution. He left memoirs.
A port and city on the west coast on the Avon.
It developed rapidly in the 17th and 18th centuries, trading with the Americas,
and prospered greatly from the slave trade.
1721-1791. Actor. He retired at the same time as Préville,
Acted at the Théâtre-Français.
The mythical ancient forest in Brittany
in which the Grail legends were set figures in medieval romance. The
of Paimpont is a surviving forested
area which has become associated with the legend.
Broglie, Albertine de Staël von Holstein, Duchesse de
Wife of Victor, 3rd Duc de
Broglie, from 1816.
1756-1794. Eldest son of Victor-François,
Duc de Broglie,
Prince de Broglie he
attained the rank of maréchal de camp in the army. He adopted
revolutionary opinions, served with La
Fayette and Rochambeau in the American
Revolution, was a member of the Jacobin Club, and sat in the Constituent
Assembly, constantly voting on the Liberal side. He served as chief of the
staff to the Republican army on the Rhine, but during the Terror he was
denounced, arrested, and guillotined in Paris on June 27, 1794.
Desaix was his aide-de-camp.
Achille-Léonce-Victor-Charles, 3rd Duc de
1785-1870. Son of General Victor
de Broglie, he was a statesman and diplomat. He was 3rd Duke from 1804. A
moderate he sought to reconcile the Revolution and the Restoration, and was
identified with the Liberal party in 1829. He later held a number of high
offices, was twice Prime Minister in 1830 and 1835-6, and was French Ambassador
to London in 1847. The 1848
Revolution was a great disappointment to him.
At a meeting of the monarchist party on 28th
In the Chamber of Peers on the 30th of July.
Thought to be opposed to freedom of the Press.
His request to the Pope concerning Marie de Berry.
Broglie, Victor-François, 2nd Duc de, Marshal of France
1718-1804. A distinguished soldier in the Seven Year’s War,
he was defeated at Willinghausen with Soubise and disgraced in 1761. He was Governor
of Trois-Évêchés then Alsace
in the 1770’s. After 1789, he retired to Luxembourg, and then became involved in counter-revolutionary
activities, commanding the army of Condé
and a member of the council of the Count of Provence. In 1797 he went to Russia, then retired to Riga in 1798, and finally to Münster, where he died having refused to return
Appointed Minister of War in 1789 but resigned a few days later.
He was the gaoler during
detention in Venice.
She was the wife of
finds her in Venice in 1833.
He was a son of
He was a son of
Charles, Comte de
1709-1777. A French magistrate and scholar, he was one of
the most noteworthy French writers of the 18th century. He was the president of
the parliament of Dijon (from 1741)
and a member of the Académie des Inscriptions et Belles-Lettres of
(from 1746), and of the Académie des Sciences, Arts et Belles-Lettres of
(from 1761). He was a close friend of de Buffon and
a personal enemy of Voltaire, who barred
his entry to the Académie française in 1770. Because he opposed the
absolute power of the king, he was exiled twice, in 1744 and 1771. During his
life, he wrote numerous academic papers on topics concerning ancient history,
philology and linguistics, which were used by Diderot
and D’Alembert in the Encyclopédie
BkXXIX:Chap7:Sec2 BkXXIX:Chap9:Sec1 He
was in Italy in
1739-1740 and his Lettres familières
were published in 1799. He disputed the
Lordship of Tourney with Voltaire in
An émigré officer, the son of Charles,
and Prefect of the Rhône in 1829.
Mentioned by name.
Henry Peter, 1st Baron Brougham and Vaux
1778-1868. British statesman, born in
as a young lawyer in Scotland
he helped to found (1802) the Edinburgh Review and contributed many
articles to it. He went to London, was called (1808) to
the English bar, and entered (1810) Parliament as a Whig. Brougham took up the
fight against the slave trade and opposed the restrictions on trade with the
Continent. In 1820 he won popular renown as chief attorney to Queen Caroline
(see Caroline of Brunswick, and in the next decade he became a liberal leader
in the House of Commons. He not only proposed educational reforms in
Parliament, but also was one of the founders of the Society for the Diffusion
of Useful Knowledge (1825) and of the Univ.
of London (1828). As Lord
Chancellor (1830–34) he effected many legal reforms to speed procedure and
established the central criminal court. In later years he spent much of his
time in Cannes, which he established as a
popular resort. Designer of the four horse carriage named after him.
François Joseph Victor
1772-1838. A soldier, a sailor, and for many years a surgeon
in the army, he pursued medical studies at Saint-Malo and at the maritime
of Brest and became a surgeon aboard corsair ships. In
1831, he was appointed Professor of the University
of Medicine in Paris
and developed a medical theory on diseases based on inflammatory reactions. In
his opinion, cancers belonged to the general framework of disorders favoured by
irritation and needed to be treated by performing bleeding and applying
leeches. Under his influence in the 1830's, France
imported dozens of millions of leeches each year. The prestige of Broussais
prevented a false and useless system from being stopped earlier. He himself
died from cancer at the age of 66.
A native of Saint-Malo.
Studied at Dinan College
with Chateaubriand. He was then twelve years old.
1771-1810. American novelist and editor, b.
considered the first professional American novelist. After the publication of Alcuin:
A Dialogue (1798), he wrote such novels as Edgar Huntly (1799), Arthur
Mervyn (2 vol., 1799–1800), and Ormond (1799), in which he presented
arguments for social reform. Wieland (1798) was by far his most popular
work and foreshadowed the psychological novel. To support himself after 1800 he
became a merchant but also edited successively three periodicals, wrote political
pamphlets, and projected a compendium on geography.
BkVIII:Chap5:Sec3 Wieland, or
The Transformation, An American Tale (1798).
The town in north-west Belgium
was the capital of Flanders in the 12th Century and the
centre of the Hanseatic League in the 13th and 14th. It
is linked by canal to major European ports. The traditional industry is lace.
The Order of the Golden Fleece was established in Bruges
by the Duke of Burgundy Philippe le Bon, on his marriage to Isabella of
Portugal, on the 10th of January 1430.
The Cathedral of St Bavo contains Van Ecyk’s
marvellous Adoration of the Lamb.
Better known as ‘Beau Brummell’, he was an arbiter of fashion in Regency England
and a friend of the Prince Regent. After offending
the Prince, he lost favour, and died penniless and insane from syphilis in Caen
An anecdote concerning him and George IV.
Marie-Anne Brune, Count
1763-1815. A Jacobin
and a friend of Danton, as general of
brigade he took part in the fighting of the 13th Vendémiaire. In 1796 he fought
under Bonaparte in Italy.
In 1798 he commanded the French army occupying Switzerland,
and in 1799 was in command of the French troops in the Netherlands.
His defence of Amsterdam against
the Anglo-Russian expedition under the Duke of York was exemplary. He rendered
further good service in Vendée and Italy,
and was made a Marshal by Napoleon in 1804. In 1807 Brune held command in North
Germany, but was not afterwards employed during the First Empire.
He was recalled to active service during the Hundred Days, and as commander of
the army of the Var defended the south of France
against the Austrians. He was murdered by royalists during the White Terror at Avignon.
21:Sec1 Rallied to Louis XVIII at Compiègne in 1814.
c1032-1101. German founder of the Carthusian order, he was educated
at Cologne and Rheims.
He built a monastery near Grenoble
which became the mother house of the order. Called to Italy
by Urban II, he founded La Torre in Calabria
where he died.
Le Sueur illustrated his life in a series
of paintings, which until the Revolution, decorated the little cloister of the
Paris Chartreuse. They are today in the Louvre.
His silence, an attribute.
Brunswick (Braunschweig), Germany
The city is
located in Lower Saxony, Germany, north of the Harz mountains, at the farthest navigable point of the
Oker river, which connects to the North Sea
via the rivers Aller and Weser.
Brunswick, Caroline Amélie of, see Princess
Charles William Ferdinand,
1735-1806. Duke of Brunswick
(1780–1806), Prussian field marshal. He had great success in the Seven Years
War (1756–63) and was commander in chief (1792–94) of the Austro-Prussian
armies in the French Revolutionary Wars. Although he sympathized with some of
the goals of the Revolution, he led the German army in its ill-fated march into
France in 1792
and issued a manifesto threatening severe reprisals against the
revolutionaries. Defeated at Valmy (1792), in 1793 he routed the French at
and Pirmasens. He again commanded the Prussian armies in 1806 and was defeated
by the French marshal Davout at Auerstadt. He was blinded in the battle and
died soon after. His son was William
Frederick, duke of Brunswick.
At Trèves in 1792.
His death after Auerstadt.
Brunswick-Bevern, Princess Elizabeth-Christina of
The wife (1733) of Frederick the Great. He separated from
her shortly after the marriage.
William-Frederick, Duke of
1771-1815. The son of Charles-William.
On the death (1806) of his father, his duchy was seized by Napoleon and added
to the kingdom of Westphalia.
He attempted to liberate it from French control in 1809, when Austria
reopened war against France.
Frederick William formed a free corps, the ‘Black Brunswickers,’ and in a
dashing foray advanced through Germany
and captured Brunswick. He soon was
driven out but succeeded in fleeing with his troops to England.
Returning in 1813, he took possession of Brunswick
but was killed at Quatre Bras in the Waterloo campaign.
The capital of Belgium,
on the River Senne, it was settled by the French in the 7th century, and developed
into a centre of the wool industry in the 13th. It became the capital of the
Spanish Netherlands in the 15th and later of the Austrian Southern
Netherlands. In 1830 it became the capital of the new kingdom of Belgium.
Chateaubriand arrives there in 1792. It was the headquarters of the émigré
Chateaubriand heads for there in September 1792, after being wounded and
falling ill with smallpox.
Republican troops threatened Brussels
after their victory at Jemmapes on the
6th November 1792. They entered the city on the 15th.
Chateaubriand arrives there in March 1815, fleeing Paris
during the Hundred Days.
Monsieur leaves Ghent for Brussels
as Napoleon’s army approaches.
The Battle of Waterloo fought nearby.
founder of the Roman Republic and traditionally one of the first Consuls in 509
BC. He led a patriotic uprising against the
Etruscan despot, Lucius Tarquinius.
A classical pseudonym adopted by Lucien
Admired by the Revolution.
Ancestor of Marcus Junius.
Brutus’ two sons, Titus and Tiberius, were drawn into a royalist conspiracy to
re-instate Tarquin, and their father condemned them to death. See David’s painting The Lictors returning the Bodies of his Sons to Brutus (1789,
Marcus Junius Brutus, co-leader of the conspiracy to assassinate Julius Caesar, and a writer on
philosophy and rhetoric. He supported Pompey
during the civil war, was pardoned and made governor of Cisalpine
Gaul in 46, but later joined the conspiracy. He committed suicide
after defeat by Antony and Octavian
Mentioned as a type of the traitor.
A reference to Fouché and those like
Descendant of Lucius.
1794-1878. An American poet and newspaper editor, born in
Cummington, Massachusetts, in his early poems such as “Thanatopsis,” “To a
Waterfowl,” “Inscription for the Entrance to a Wood,” and “The Yellow Violet,”
all written before he was 21, he celebrated the majesty of nature in a style
that was influenced by the English Romantics but also reflected a personal
simplicity and dignity. Admitted to the bar in 1815 after a year at Williams
and private study, Bryant practiced law in Great Barrington, Mass., until 1825,
when he went to New York City. By
that time he was already known as a poet and critic. He became associate editor
of the New York Evening Post
in 1826, and from 1829 to his death he was part owner and editor in chief. An
industrious and forthright editor of a highly literate paper, he was a defender
of human rights and an advocate of free trade, abolition of slavery, and other
reforms. He also holds an important place in literature as the earliest
American theorist of poetry. In his Lectures on Poetry (delivered 1825;
published 1884) and other critical essays he stressed the values of simplicity,
original imagination, and morality. His blank verse translation of the Iliad appeared in 1870, that of the Odyssey
Title of a poem by him.
and Chandos, Richard
Temple-Nugent-Brydges-Chandos-Grenville, 1st Duke of
was MP for Buckinghamshire 1797–1813. He inserted ‘Brydges-Chandos’ into his
name by Royal Warrant in 1799. In 1806, he was made a Privy Counsellor, and in 1820,
a Knight of the Garter. He was created Duke of Buckingham and Chandos in
February 1822, his wife being the only daughter of the 3rd Duke of Chandos; he
was in the same patent created Earl Temple of Stowe, with special remainder,
which thus survived the extinction of the Dukedom in 1889.
BkXXVII:Chap5:Sec1 He fought a duel in
Kensington Gardens with the Duke of Bedford on
the 2nd of May 1822. Neither was injured.
George-Louis Leclerc, Comte de
1707-1788 A French naturalist and author, from 1739 the
keeper of the Jardin du Roi (later the Jardin des Plantes) in Paris.
He made it a centre of research during the Enlightenment. He devoted his life
to his monumental Histoire naturelle (44 vol., 1749–1804), a popular and
brilliantly written compendium of data on natural history interspersed with
Buffon’s own speculations and theories. Of this work, the volumes Histoire
naturelle des animaux and Époques de la nature are of special
interest. His famous Discours sur le style was delivered (1753) on his
reception into the French
He also contributed to the mathematics of probability.
His bust, and its inscription.
Creator of a new literary style.
The African Crested Crane, Balearica
pavonina, of non-Saharan Africa, is Buffon’s ‘Oiseau Royal’, with its golden crown of
fine feathers and elegant plumage. He described it in his Natural History (it
was also described in the Encyclopédie of Diderot and D’Alembert, article
11:443) and there was a fine specimen in the Versailles’
menagerie for many years. For men the hairstyle ‘à l’oiseau royal’ popular
during the reign of Louis XVI, seems to have involved a tall curled and
powdered wig. By 1788 men were wearing their own hair tied at the back,
sometimes powdered and cut to look like a wig, while the powdered wig was completely
out of fashion by 1794. Long hair was unfashionable after 1800, and the wig was
finally abandoned to women’s fashion. Chateaubriand is therefore looking back
to portraits from a by-gone age.
Buffon, Marguerite-Françoise de Bouvier de Cépoy, Comtesse de
1767-1808 Daughter-in-law of George.
Mentioned, as the mistress of the Duc d’Orleans.
Thomas Robert, Marquis de la Piconnerie, Duc d’Isly
1784-1849. A distinguished Napoleonic officer, he became a Marshal of France (1843) and Governor-General of Algeria (1840). His
conduct as gaoler of the Duchesse de Berry led to a duel between Bugeaud and
the deputy Dulong in which the latter was killed (1834).
BkXL:Chap4:Sec1 BkXL:Chap6:Sec1 Mentioned.
ad Dakrur (Bulak),
A town on the east bank of the Nile
opposite Giza and the Pyramids, now
a district of Cairo. There is also an island
Gezira Bulaq nearby in the Nile itself. The
of Egyptian Antiquities was founded
at Bulaq in 1863.
of the Seals and Superintendent of Finances under Louis XIII; Cardinal Richelieu annually rewarded his
intelligent and disinterested administration by a bonus of 100,000 livres.
1755-1816 A Prussian general in the Napoleonic Wars. After
his victories (1813) over the French at Gross Beeren and at Dennewitz he was
created count of Dennewitz. In 1815 he played a conspicuous part in the
A market town in Suffolk,
it lies six miles from Beccles, on a loop of the River
BkX:Chap11:Sec1 Home of
the Reverend John Clement Ives.
Chateaubriand tempted to return there.
Christian Karl Josias, Baron von
1791-1860. A Prussian diplomat and scholar, he
studied theology at the University of
Göttingen. He was a friend of King
Frederick William IV and urged him to accept liberal ideas. Bunsen was minister
to the Papal court at Rome
(1824–38) and Ambassador to Bern
(1839–41) and to London (1842–54),
but he was recalled from London
because he supported alliance with the Western powers in the Crimean War. A
scholar of note, Bunsen wrote on religion, language, literature, history, and
Chateaubriand negotiated with him for the Caffarelli
Palace on the Capitoline.
Burgesh, see Lord Westmoreland
A pseudonym of Napoleon,
he adopted it on his journey to Elba.
A city of northernwestern Spain, at the edge of
the central plateau. It is a 9th century city, with a famous cathedral (begun
1221), and has been at the centre of many wars (Moorish, Napoleonic, Carlist
letter dated from there.
1729-1797. The British political philosopher and politician,
he was a supporter of aristocratic government and opposed to democracy, he
condemned the French Revolution (Reflections
on the Revolution in France, 1790).
Chateaubriand mentions meeting him.
His influence on Anglo-French relations.
His reactionary politics.
He split with Fox in 1792 and retired from parliament in 1794, a short while after
the death of his son Richard (b 1757). His school for émigré children was
founded in Penn in 1796.
As a famous Englishman.
A city in Baden-Württemberg, it received its city charter in
1300 and was at the time a possession of the Lords of Üsenberg.
Chateaubriand there in 1833.
(or Burnet), Frances (Fanny), Madame D’Arblay
1752-1840. A British writer, she became Madam D’Arblay,
marrying an exiled nobleman from France,
and subsequently lived in Paris
(1802-1812). Her Diaries and other works give a vivid picture of the inner life
at Court, and include a meeting with Chateaubriand in 1814 at Ghent.
Her novels include Evelina (1778), Cecilia (1782), and Camilla (1796).
Mentioned as a popular authoress.
1759-1797. Scottish poet considered the major
poetic voice of his nation. His lyrics, written in dialect and infused with
humour, celebrated love, patriotism, and the rustic life.
BkXII:Chap3:Sec1 An early Romantic.
An association of students in support of German liberation
and unity; formed in 1813. After
joint student demonstrations at the Wartburg Festival in October 1817 and the
assassination of August von Kotzebue (a
German writer who served the Russian tsar) by the nationalistic Burschenschafter
Karl Sand in March 1819, the alarmed German governments passed the Carlsbad Decrees which in part
provided for the official suppression of the Burschenschaften.
Thereafter, the clubs went underground
until 1848, when they actively participated in the German Revolution.
1755-1844. A Cardinal from
1824, and Archbishop of Benevento.
Bute, John Stuart,
3rd Earl of
A Scottish nobleman who served as Prime
Minister of Great Britain (1762–1763) under George III. Later Bute retired to
his estate in Hampshire, from where he continued his pursuit of botany and
became a major literary and artistic patron.
1731-1806. He acted as Deputy for the Corsican nobility in
the National Assembly. He had been
sent by Paoli to treat as
plenipotentiary with France,
was won over by Choiseul, declared
against the national cause, and appeared in the island as colonel of Louis XV’s Corsican regiment. Napoleon in a famous early letter berated
him for his treachery.
His request to Rousseau in
1764 to draft a constitution for Corsica, a project on
which Rousseau carried out preliminary work.
The letter quoted was written in January 1791.
Bonaparte’s pamphlets written to him.
1763-1829. Russian soldier, military historian, politician,
librarian of the Imperial Russian Library, he was one of the most outstanding
book collectors of 19th century Russia.
He formed an important library unfortunately destroyed during the burning of
in 1812. BkXXI:Chap4:Sec1
His History of the Russian Campaign
Annabella Milbanke, Lady
1792-1860. She married Lord Byron
in 1815, and had a daughter Ada by
him, prior to separating from him permanently.
Byron, George Gordon, Lord Byron, Sixth Baron
1788-1824 Poet, author of Childe Harold’s Pilgrimage (1812), Don Juan (started 1818) etc. One of the most famous European poets
of his day, he inherited his great-uncle’s title. A supporter of Greek
Independence, he died, of fever at Missolonghi in Greece,
pursuing its goal.
Mentioned by Chateaubriand.
Chateaubriand quotes Childe Harold,
Byron’s notorious love-life, particularly in Venice.
An exemplar of the love-poet.
His lameness (a club foot). His debt to Shakespeare.
The leading poet.
A major digression on Byron and his works. Byron’s early childhood was spent in
Aberdeen. He inherited Newstead
Abbey near Mansfield at age 10 in
1798. Byron did not in fact attend Harrow
School until 1801 while in the
French text Chateaubriand incorrectly states that his time there overlapped
with his own exile in London.
Chateaubriand quotes from Byron’s Hours
of Idleness (1807) ‘When I roved, a
young Highlander’….and an edited version of Lines written beneath an elm in the Churchyard of Harrow. Byron was in
1816-1819, Chateaubriand earlier in 1806, then later in 1833 and 1839.
Chateaubriand refers to Childe Harold
Canto I:VII, and Canto IV
His supposed literary debt to Chateaubriand.
The quotation is from Hours of Idleness,
Occasional Pieces X, Ode to Napoleon Buonaparte.
20:Sec3 His lack of understanding of Napoleon’s character.
Revolted by Napoleon’s attacks on the English.
He briefly took his seat in the House of Lords, where he too expressed liberal
He was in Ravenna in 1819-1820 with Tersea
Guiccioli. Chateaubriand dubs him Childe Harold, the name of Byron’s own
hero. Byron’s Prophecy of Dante,
1820, condemns the Papal Power in Rome
and the foreign presence in Lombardy, and exhorts the
Italians to unify their country.
See Childe Harold Canto IV:66-68
Byron was in Rome in 1817. The
quotation is from Childe Harold IV:79
etc. Niobe was the wife of Amphion, king of Thebes
who rejected Latona and boasted of her children. Her seven sons were killed by Apollo
and Diana, the children of Latona (Leto), and her husband commited suicide.
Still unrepentant, her daughters were also killed, and she was turned to stone
and set on top of a mountain in her native country of Lydia
where she weeps eternally.
Byron lived in the Villa Diodati at Cologny in 1816, Shelley
and his entourage also staying nearby. A
trip on the lake with Shelley to the Fortress of Chillon lead to his writing of
a poem about Bonivard, titled the Prisoner of Chillon.
A traveller who wrote poetry about his travels.
See Childe Harold Canto IV:XIV:3.
Byron was in Venice from 1816-1820.
His reputation as a womanizer.
For Margherita Cogni, and the passages quoted, see Byron’s somewhat more risqué
Letter to John Murray dated August 1st,
1819, from Ravenna. For
Byron on Rubens, and the arts in general,
see his letter to John Murray of April
14th 1817 from Venice,
effectively quoted here.
‘Glory and Greece’….the lines are
from On This Day I Complete My Thirty-Sixth
Year, written at Missolonghi on Januray 22nd 1824, except that
Chateaubriand alters the me of the
first line quoted to us, indicating
his own wish to die in Italy.
Isabella Albrizzi’s account of him.
He met Teresa Guiccioli at Contessa Benzoni’s.
horses stabled on the Lido in Venice.
See Childe Harold’s Pilgrimage, Canto
For Arqua see Childe-Harold Canto
1723-1786. Commodore Byron was the grandfather of the poet.
He explored Patagonia, Tierra del Fuego,
and the Falklands between 1764 and 1766.