A fishing port in southern
Doctor at St Helena, at Napoleon’s exhumation in 1840.
1770-1837. A Cardinal from 1803, he was Bishop of Albano and succeeded Pacca as Camerlingo in 1824.
BkXXX:Chap1:Sec1 Mentioned in 1829.
Rejected as a Papal candidate by
d.310 Roman emperor (305–10). Diocletian appointed him Caesar for the
eastern part of the empire in 293 (Constantius I was Caesar of the West). On
the abdication of Diocletian and Maximian in 305, he and Constantius succeeded
as emperors. Galerius tried to increase his power, and after Constantius died
in 306 he recognized Severus (d.307) as co-emperor in the West. Severus and he
attempted without success to put down the claims of Maxentius. After they were
defeated and Severus was captured, Galerius had Diocletian approve the
appointment of Licinius as emperor of the West. Constantius’ son Constantine (Constantine I) and Maximin
(d.313) then both claimed power. Galerius died before the confusion was
eliminated by the victory of
The medieval kingdom in North-west
BkI:Chap1:Sec9 Chateaubriand’s father attacked and robbed there.
Austrian anatomist. He
devoted most of his life to a minute study of the nervous system, especially
the brain. With the collaboration of a favourite pupil, John Caspar Spurzheim
(1776–1832), he incorporated his research into a four-volume work and atlas
that appeared from 1810 to 1819. Gall demonstrated that the white matter of the
brain consists of nerve fibres, and he launched the doctrine of localization of
various mental processes in the brain. Derided for his later involvement with
the pseudoscience of phrenology, he left
d. 268, Roman emperor. He ruled as the
colleague (253–60) of his father, Valerian, and alone from 260–68. Gallienus
checked the Alemanni near
c330. King of Cornouailles in
BkV:Chap2:Sec 2 Mentioned.
1766-1841. He was a Librarian at
the Marciana Library (facing the Doge’s Palace) in
Chateaubriand visits him on
1760-1841. A lawyer he was ordained in 1824, subsequently consecrated Bishop of Orvieto, and was made a Cardinal in 1828.
BkXXX:Chap1:Sec1 Mentioned in 1829.
Source of the Cholera epidemic of 1817-1832. It reached
The son of Tros, brother of Ilus and Assaracus, he was loved by Zeus because of his great beauty. Zeus, in the form of an eagle, abducted him and made him his cup-bearer.
BkXXXIX:Chap5:Sec1 A statue of the abduction.
The capital of the Hautes-Alpes
department of south-east
1749-1833. He was minister of justice (1792-93) during the trial of Louis XVI and notified the king of the death verdict. Appointed (1793) minister of the interior, he proved inadequate in the post. He was twice imprisoned during the Terror, and held high government posts after the terrorists were overthrown. He also served under the Empire. After the Restoration he was forced to retire (1816). Garat wrote many works of political reminiscence and history, notably his Mémoires historiques sur le XVIIIe siècle et sur M. Suard (1820).
He read Louis XVI’s sentence to the king on the evening of
The largest lake in Italy, it is located about half-way between Venice and Milan. The lake and its shoreline are divided between the provinces of Verona (to the south-east), Brescia (south-west), and Trent (north). The ancient fortified town of Sirmione is located on the south of the lake: Catullus stayed there in a family villa. Virgil also celebrated the location.
A river of southwest France flowing about 350 miles generally northwest from the Spanish Pyrenees to join the Dordogne River north of Bordeaux and form the Gironde estuary.
fl. c1830. A French singer, she sang in
A contact made by Chateaubriand on his travels.
BkXVIII:Chap3Sec4 His letter to Chateaubriand.
A village in
1776-1852. The French authoress, who married
Receiver-General of the départment of the Riser or
BkXVIII:Chap8:Sec2 Her intervention on Chateaubriand’s behalf.
1804-1855. Daughter of Sophie, the contemporary sketches which she contributed from 1836 to 1839 to La Presse, under the nom de plume of Charles de Launay, were collected as Lettres parisiennes (1843), and obtained a brilliant success. Contes d’une vieille fille a ses neveux (1832), La Canne de Monsieur de Balzac (1836) and Il ne faut pas jouer avec la douleur (1853) are among the best-known of her romances; and her dramatic pieces in prose and verse include L'École des journalistes (1840), Judith (1843), Cléopâtre (1847), Lady Tartufe (1853), and the one-act comedies, C'est la faute du mari (1851), La Joie fait peur (1854), Le Chapeau d'un horloger (1854) and Une Femme qui deteste son mari, which did not appear till after the author’s death. She ran an influential salon.
She married Émile de Girardin on
1769-1846. Bishop (1801) of Derbe, he was Archbishop of Milan (from
1818) in 1829, having been made a Cardinal in 1824.
BkXXX:Chap1:Sec2 Mentioned in 1829.
It was founded by Théophraste Renaudot the Royal historiographer to
Louis XIII, in 1631, to record royal
events. The word gazette from the Italian gazetta
signified a small coin, the cost of the first ‘gazette’ published in
It recorded Chateaubriand’s participation in the royal hunt, (on
BkXXIX:Chap15:Sec1 As an ultra-Royal paper it was hostile to Chateaubriand in the 1820’s.
BkXXXIX:Chap10:Sec1 A reference to gazettes as Venetian in origin.
Founded in 1677, the French language newspaper was published in
Gelée, Claude, see Claude Lorrain
Saint William of Gellone (755-c.812 or 814), was the second count of Toulouse from 790 until his replacement in 811. He is the hero of the Chanson de Guillaume, an early chanson de geste, and of several later sequels, which were categorized by thirteenth-century poets as the geste of Garin de Monglane. In 803, he took Barcelona from the Moors and in the next year (804) founded the monastery of Gellone (now Saint-Guilhem-le-Désert) near Lodève in the Diocese of Maguelonne, and made it subject to the famous Saint Benedict of Aniane, whose monastery was nearby. He became a monk there in 806, and later died there.
A town near Villach.
BkXLI:Chap1:Sec1 Chateaubriand there in 1833.
The Genesee River's name is derived from the Iroquois meaning fine valley or pleasant valley. It flows northward through western New York from its source south of the town of Genesee in Pennsylvania and empties into Lake Ontario north of the City of Rochester, New York.
The city in southwest
BkXVII:Chap3:Sec1 Chateaubriand there in 1805.
The 19th century Fort d’Écluse (really two forts, one above and one below,
connected by a stairway cut in the rock), southwest of
BkXXXIV:Chap5:Sec1 Chateaubriand states his intention of going there in 1831.
Chateaubriand and his wife arrived there
Chateaubriand arrived on
A southern pass through the
422-512. Born at
Her reliquary paraded during the plague in
A heroine of medieval legend, probably
on the history of Marie of Brabant, wife of Louis II, Duke of Bavaria and Count
Palatine of the Rhine. Marie of Brabant was supposed of infidelity and
subsequently tried by her husband, found guilty and beheaded on
The Genius of Christianity, a work by Chateaubriand, started in
BkI:Chap1:Sec1 Chateaubriand mentions it, as a proof of his fame comparable to that of Voltaire.
BkII:Chap6:Sec3 Mentioned. See the work itself I.1.7
BkIV:Chap2:Sec2 Mentioned. See the preface to the work.
Chateaubriand refers to Part 1, Book V, Chapter 12. The moon was full on
BkXIII:Chap8:Sec1 The work continued in 1801.
BkXVI:Chap1:Sec1 It acted as a door-opener to Chateaubriand’s political career.
BkXVII:Chap1:Sec1 An inspiration for further work.
BkXVIII:Chap6:Sec1 It gained Chateaubriand spurious admiration.
BkXVIII:Chap8:Sec2 Proposed for the Decennial Prize in 1810 but rejected.
BkXXXIII:Chap10:Sec1 Its significance in Chateaubriand’s literary career.
BkXXXVI:Chap1:Sec1 See the work where Chateaubriand describes the rural Rogations.
BkXXXVII:Chap5:Sec1 See Part I:III:2 and the chapter Snakes in Voyage to America.
1746-1830. A French writer and educator, she wrote four volumes of plays for children and close to a hundred volumes of historical and other romances of which Mademoiselle de Clermont (1802) is the best-known.
A city of northwest
BkXIX:Chap12:Sec2 The revolution there in May 1797.
Sampierdarena (San Pier d’Arena) is a town in
26:Sec1 Napoleon intended a commercial treaty between
BkXXXIX:Chap3:Sec1 Its climate suitable for American plants.
1758-1793. The son of a military surgeon, he was born at
1764-1832. A Prussian publicist and diplomat, he acted as general secretary to the Vienna Congress, before becoming a colleague of Metternich.
BkXXII:Chap 20:Sec1 Chateaubriand attributes the anonymous pamphlet mentioned to him.
BkXXXIX:Chap3:Sec1 He died in 1832.
1699-1777. A French hostess, her salon in the Hôtel de Rambouillet was an international meeting place of artists and men of letters from 1749 to 1777. The daughter of a valet, she married a rich manufacturer. Although lacking formal education herself, Madame Geoffrin was sensitive, an excellent listener, and naturally intelligent; she inherited the salon of the more unconventional Madame de Tencin, gave it an added tone of respectability, and became a generous, motherly patron to her guests and protégés. Her salon was also a centre for the Encyclopédistes, whose vast project she subsidized.
1743-1814. Literary critic, born at Rennes. On the death of Élie Fréron in 1776 the other collaborators in the Année littéraire asked Geoffroy to succeed him, and he conducted the journal until its closure in 1792. He was a bitter critic of Voltaire and his followers. An enthusiastic royalist, he published, with Fréron's brother-in-law, the abbé Thomas Royou (1741-1792), a journal, L'Ami du roi (1790-1792), which possibly did more harm than good to the king's cause by its ill-advised partisanship. During the Reign of Terror, Geoffroy hid in the neighbourhood of Paris, only returning in 1799.
III, King of
1738-1820. King of
His meetings with Pitt. It is unlikely
(thought not impossible) that Chateaubriand could have witnessed the scene he
BkXXIV:Chap3:Sec1 King during Napoleon’s reign.
1762-1830. King of
reputed agents in
BkXXVII:Chap4:Sec1 Chateaubriand meets him on a number of occasions.
BkXXIX:Chap13:Sec4 He was in bad health by 1828.
A reference to his speech to Parliament of
BkXXXIX:Chap3:Sec1 He died in 1830.
V, King of
He was the only son of Ernst August I,
BkXXVI:Chap6:Sec1 He lost the sight of one eye during a childhood illness, and the other in an accident in 1833.
William, Elector of
1595-1640. Of the Hohenzollern dynasty, he was Margrave and Elector of Brandenburg and Duke of Prussia (1619-1640). His reign was marked by ineffective governance during the Thirty Years’ War.
Podiebrad, King of
1420-1471. King of
1770-1837. The French portrait and historical painter was born in
BkXXVIII:Chap19:Sec1 His painting Corinne of 1819.
His painting of St Theresa of 1828
was done at Madame Récamier’s
instigation and given to Madame de Chateaubriand.
It was installed in the Infirmary chapel on
1773-1852. A Napoleonic general,
he distinguished himself at the battles of Austerlitz and Jena, and was made general of brigade in
November 1806, and for his conduct in the battle of Wagram he was created a baron. He conducted
himself brilliantly throughout the Russian campaign, at subsequent battles, and
ultimately at Ligny. Gerard retired to
His arrest ordered but not carried out on
c380-448. Bishop of Auxerre (418), he died at
BkXVI:Chap10:Sec1 His ashes were returned to
A teacher at Rennes college.
13th Century. An English historian, he wrote a collection of pieces on physics, history and geography such as De mirabilibus orbis.
1660-1761. He was a Trappist Abbot and author. A discalced Carmelite, he
entered La Trappe in 1695 becoming the third Abbot. He resigned in 1698. He was
ultimately banished to the monastery of Reclus,
Sieur de la Noë-Seiche, he was Seneschal (principal judge, chief of
police and administrator for the seigneurie)
at Combourg. In 1792 he acted at
Chateaubriand’s marriage. The first elected mayor of Combourg in 1790, he was
judge and then president of the tribunal at
1767-1795. Born 23rd February 1767, and eighteen months older than
Chateaubriand, he was a childhood friend of Chateaubriand. They met again at Rennes, then at Brest in 1783. Gesril became a ship’s
lieutenant in 1789. He emigrated in 1791, and saw his friend for the last time
in May 1793 between Jersey and Southampton. Captured after the landing
Remembered by Chateaubriand as he left for
She was sister to Gesril du Papeu, Chateaubriand’s childhood friend.
c14th century. Gessler was
the legendary Austrian
1730-1788. A Swiss writer,
translator, painter, and etcher, he was known throughout
Last of the La Roberie branch of the Du Guesclin line (both branches terminated), she married the Duke (Louis-Paris-Joachim Potier de Gèvres-Luxembourg, Duc de Gèvres et de Tresmes, Governor of Paris) in 1758. He was executed in 1794. In 1809, an octogenarian, she received a small pension from Napoleon as ‘the last of the Du Guesclins’.
The city in
By the ‘Pacification of Ghent’ in 1576, the seventeen provinces of the
The pension granted to him on
historian who wrote the classic text The History of the Decline and Fall of
BkXII:Chap1:Sec1 BkXXVIII:Chap10:Sec1 He retired to Lausanne where he completed his work in 1788. He was friendly with the Neckers after their return to Coppet. He returned to his Protestant faith at the end of his life.
He was a member of the Committee for the Medal-Winners of July.
BkXXXV:Chap1:Sec1 Mentioned in April 1832.
The work by Le Sage,
nominally set in
BkXVIII:Chap3Sec1 A reference to a celebrated episode in the work, Book VII, Chapter 4, where the quality of the prelate’s sermons is questioned.
Brother of the Duke of
1748-1815. French Author, born at Rennes.
He hailed the first symptoms of the French Revolution, and joined Giuseppe
Cerutti, the author of the Mémoire pour le peuple français (1788), and
others in producing the Feuille villageoise, a weekly paper addressed to
the villages of
A follower of Chamfort. Description of
the man. The Cadran-Bleu was a well-known restaurant in the Boulevard du
BkV:Chap15:Sec2 Argued with Chateaubriand over his politics.
BkXI:Chap2:Sec1 Chateaubriand sent him a copy of the Essai.
Chateaubriand saw him again in
BkXIII:Chap10:Sec1 His savaging of Le Génie in his journal La Décade philisophique (founded 1796, and the sole opposition journal during the Empire).
Marie-Ann Poulet married Pierre-Louis Ginguené in November 1786.
BkIV:Chap12:Sec2 She warned Chateaubriand’s family of the imminent atrocities.
BkV:Chap15:Sec2 She sent Monsieur Monnet and his daughter to see Chateaubriand.
architect, antiquary, archaeologist, and classical scholar, he was born in
Chateaubriand’s Italian Courier.
1776-1855. The son of Rousseau’s patron, and father of the future director of La Presse, he served with distinction as a general. He supported the first Restoration, and though he joined Napoleon during the Hundred Days, he retained royal favour as First Huntsman. He was also Inspector General of the Cavalry from 1816 to 1823.
1767-1824. The French Neoclassical painter studied under David but developed his own cooler atmospheric style. In 1812 he inherited a fortune and from then on mainly worked on poems on aesthetics.
BkXVIII:Chap5:Sec2 His 1809 portrait (St. Malo Museum Gallery)
shows Chateaubriand, with windblown hair, meditating among the ruins of
A city located in northeast Catalonia, at the confluence of the rivers Ter and Onyar.
BkXX:Chap7:Sec2 The inhabitants heroically resisted the French in 1809.
A relatively moderate revolutionary party several of its members coming from the , hence its name. Vergniaud, Buzot and Brissot were prominent members.
BkIX:Chap3:Sec1 Powerful in 1792.
A commune in the metropolitan area of Paris it is located 39 miles northwest of the centre of Paris. Gisors is in the Vexin normand region of Normandy at the confluence of the Epte, Troesne and Réveillon rivers .
BkXXXI:Chap8:Sec1 Chateaubriand was there in July 1830.
1732-1758. He died in battle at
1792-1866. Gisquet first rose to prominence as a somewhat shady and opportunistic businessman before being appointed Prefect of Police by his longtime protector Casimir Perier in 1831. He retained this post for five years, earning widespread condemnation, particularly in liberal circles, for his strong-arm tactics and general disregard for the finer points of constitutional and criminal law. Gisquet was very much in the news in late 1833 and early 1834 for his role as one of the principal point men in Louis-Philippe’s ongoing legal battle with the recently unshackled press.
BkXXXV:Chap5:Sec1 He visits Chateaubriand in his cell in June 1832.
She was the wife of the Prefect of Police, Guisquet.
She was the daughter of the Prefect of Police, Gisquet.
State prosecutor for Louis XV lived in Calvi, .
BkXIX:Chap3:Sec1 Napoleon’s godfather.
The patron saint of Padua, she was said to have been martyred in 304 AD.
1769-1843. He lived as a layman from 1798 to 1814, travelling
BkXXX:Chap1:Sec1 A candidate for the Papacy in 1829.
BkXXX:Chap1:Sec2 A possible candidate for French veto in the Papal Conclave of 1829. A pro-Jesuit voter.
Rejected as a Papal candidate by
1470-1536 An annalist, he was Bishop of Nebbio in
BkVI:Chap3:Sec1 Mentioned. Genesis I.31 (‘and behold it was very good’) and Psalm XIX verses 1 (‘The heavens declare the glory of God’) and 5 (‘as a bridegroom…as a strong man’) are quoted.
1794-1854. Attaché in
A town in
It was the principal journal of Liberal youth in
BkXXIX:Chap17:Sec1 Mentioned in 1829.
1714-1787. A German composer who reformed opera seria making it less artificial. He composed Orfeo ed Euridice (1762) and Alceste (1767), inspired by Calzabigi’s librettos.
Present at the exhumation of the
1756-1836. English author and political philosopher. A minister in his youth, he was, however, plagued by religious doubts and gave up preaching in 1783 for a literary career. His Enquiry Concerning Political Justice (1793) recorded the view that men are ultimately guided by reason and therefore, being rational creatures, could live in harmony without laws and institutions. His views are also reflected in his novels - Things as they are, or the Adventures of Caleb Williams (1794), St. Leon (1799), and Fleetwood (1805). In 1797, Godwin married Mary Wollstonecraft, who died the same year after giving birth to a daughter, Mary. He remarried in 1801 and in 1805 established a small, juvenile publishing business. His last years were an unceasing struggle against poverty and debt. Godwin’s works strongly influenced his younger contemporaries, particularly Shelley, whose elopement with Mary (1814) drew from Godwin an exhibition of sternness at variance with his earlier views. However, he was later reconciled to their marriage.
1749-1832. German poet, scholar and statesman, his novel The Sorrows of Young Werther (1774) won
him international fame. He settled in
Preface:Sect3. He is mentioned by Chateaubriand as having recently died.
BkXII:Chap4:Sec2 A great exponent of the passion and tragedy of his age.
BkXXVI:Chap1:Sec1 Chateaubriand labels him as a materialist.
BkXXIX:Chap7:Sec3 Goethe’s Italian Journey documents his travels there 1786-1788. Chateaubriand disliked what he saw as his materialistic and pagan tendency.
BkXXXIX:Chap13:Sec1 See his Venetian Epigrams and his Italian Journey. Goethe was in Venice September/October 1786.
BkXXXIX:Chap18:Sec1 Goethe’s famous poem ‘Kennst du das land…’
BkXXXIX:Chap20:Sec1 See Venetian Epigrams VIII.
BkXL:Chap2:Sec1 See his Torquato Tasso of 1789.
1707-1793. He was a prolific and much imitated Italian playwright.
BkXXXIX:Chap18:Sec1 Le Baruffe Chiozotto, The Chiozotto Quarrel, is a comedy of 1760-62. Checca and Orsetta are fisher-folk.
1730?-1774. Irish writer and physician known for his novel The Vicar of Wakefield (1766), his pastoral poem The Deserted Village (1770, written in memory of his brother), and his plays The Good-natur'd Man (1768) and She Stoops to Conquer (1773).
Author of The Vicar of
A town and harbour between Juan-les-Pins and
Son of Japhet. See Genesis 10:5.
It was one of the five Cities of the Plain of Siddim, which were destroyed by fire, for their wickedness (See Genesis ; ; , 28).
name is often paired with
Gonesse is now a commune in the northeastern suburbs of Paris. It is located 10 miles from the centre of the city. King Philip II of France was born there on 21 August 1165.
BkXXIII:Chap20:Sec2 Chateaubriand there with the King in 1815.
1775-1862. She married the Vicomte de Gontaut-Biron in 1792. From 1819 she
was Governess of the royal children, receiving the title of Duchess in 1826,
and following Charles X to
1756-1829. A physician, he was an expert on cases of death by drowning.
Author of The Connexion of Life with
Respiration (1795). A specialist in pulmonary disease, he practised at
He was Commander of the British fort at Niagara in 1791.
The British continued to administer the frontier post until 1796 despite the
agreement to hand control to the
Medusa, or Gorgo, was the best known of the Three Gorgons, the daughters of Phorcys. A winged monster with snaky locks, glaring eyes and brazen claws whose gaze turned men to stone. Her sisters were Stheino and Euryale.
BkXIII:Chap6:Sec1 The type of ugliness.
The new town of Nova
Charles X died in the
The small village was not far from Maloyaroslavets.
Napoleon stayed there on the retreat from
The town in , halfway
BkXIII:Chap7:Sec2 In 1831
students and citizens stormed the Town Hall. 1837 the Göttinger Sieben (seven
professors from the
c1510-1568. The French Renaissance sculptor is best known for his marble relief of the Deposition for St Germain l’Auxerrois, now in the Louvre, the Tribune of the Caryatids supporting a gallery in the Louvre, and the reliefs pf nymphs for the Fontaine des Innocents.
BkXXIX:Chap6:Sec1 The Calvinist sculptor was said to have been killed on St Bartholomew’s day while working on the decoration of the new Louvre.
1783-1852. General and Aide-de-camp to Napoleon, he fought through numerous
campaigns and at
BkXXI:Chap2:Sec1 Reference to his Napoléon et la Grande-Armée en Russie (1825)
BkXXXII:Chap2:Sec1 He returned to the army with his previous rank under the July Monarchy.
1764-1830. He served in the French Revolutionary and Napoleonic Wars and was made marshal following his victory at Polotsk (1812). After the Bourbon restoration he served twice (1815, 1817-19) as minister of war and was instrumental in passing a law to organize military recruitment by voluntary pledges and lottery and limit the arbitrariness of promotions. Because of these attempts to limit the influence of the émigré nobility in the officer corps, he was forced from office by the ultra-royalists. He wrote on the Napoleonic Wars and left personal memoirs. He was an actor in his youth.
BkXXIII:Chap3:Sec1 He showed his support for the Royalists in 1815.
An inhabitant of La Ballue, Saint-Servan in 1798.
Died 1818. Captain of the 7th Breton Company in the Army of Princes.
Officer of the Guard in 1830.
BkXII:Chap5:Sec1 The Goyon family line.
1769-1809. A naval officer, and cousin by marriage of Chateaubriand, he was executed with Armand de Chateaubriand.
Died 1847. Wife of Armand. She was the grand-daughter of Julie-Angélique de Bedée and Jean-François Moreau, therefore a distant cousin of Chateaubriand.
Tiberius (163-133BC) was a Roman reformer who as tribune in 1333 proposed land reforms designed to create a class of small landowners. He was killed in a riot. His brother Gaius (153-121BC) was tribune in 123 and renewed Tiberius’ attempts. He was killed in riots over his proposal to grant Roman citizenship to Latins. The Gracchi’s attempts at reforms factionalised the aristocracy and prevented peaceful change.
BkXXX:Chap2:Sec1 Their fate mentioned.
The Graces or Charites (the Roman Gratia) were the three sisters, daughters of Jupiter-Zeus and Eurynome, attendants to Venus-Aphrodite. Often depicted with arms entwined in dance (See Botticelli’s ‘Primavera’) their names were Aglaia, Euphrosyne, and Thalia. They signified giving, receiving, and thanking, later the Platonic triad, love, beauty, truth.
A town in north-eastern
BkXIX:Chap12:Sec2 Taken by Napoleon in 1797.
capture of Gradisca on
Grammont, Duchesse de
d.1794 Executed during the Terror.
1737-1816. Actor and author. Famous as Harpagon in Molière’s L’Avare (1790, and again in 1799)
BkIV:Chap11:Sec1 Actor at the Théâtre-Français.
The city in Andalusia in south-west Spain, at the confluence of the
Darro and Genil rivers, formerly the capital of the Kingdom of Granada, and the
last Moorish stronghold in Spain until conquered in 1492. Its splendid
architecture includes the
BkIII:Chap8:Sec1 Mentioned as an exotic city.
Chateaubriand there in 1807. The area west of
BkXVIII:Chap3Sec2 A letter dated from there.
The Vega is the plain outside
Following plans designed by Vauban, engineer Siméon de Garangeau (1647-1741) extended the town, revamped its fortifications, and built sea forts on the small islands off the city, Petit Bé, Grand Bé and Fort Royal, later renamed , La Conchée, and Cézembre.
BkI:Chap3:Sec4 The site of Chateaubriand’s tomb (1848).
A now-defunct prison in the Marais district of Paris divided into La Petite-Force for women and La Grande-Force for men.
A traditional title for the Ottoman Sultan of Constantinople (
1758-1821. A revolutionary, Member of the
Convention, and regicide. He returned to
The coastal city in Basse-Normandie is sited on a rocky point commanding the Channel. Granville is situated on the Cotentin Peninsula at the mouth of Bosq and Pointe du Roc (Cap Lihou) which in part closes in the north of the bay of Mont-Saint-Michel. It was at one time a corsair city which rivalled Saint-Malo, and it sent a large cod-fishing fleet to fish the Banks of Newfoundland. It was besieged by the English in 1803. Seventeen French Admirals were born there.
BkXXVII:Chap1:Sec1 Its oyster-beds in 1822.
1716-1771. English poet considered a forerunner of English romanticism. His most famous work is the Elegy Written in a Country Churchyard (1751).
BkXII:Chap5:Sec1 Chateaubriand’s translation of Gray’s Elegy begins: ‘Dans les airs frémissants, j’entends le long murmure/ De la cloche du soir qui tinte avec lenteur…’ He also translates from the Ode on a Distant Prospect of Eton College, here given in the original.
BkXXVII:Chap11:Sec1 A reference to Gray’s Elegy.
BkXXIX:Chap2:Sec3 From Ode
on a Distant Prospect of
BkXLI:Chap1:Sec1 The quotation is from Chateaubriand’s imitation of Gray’s Elegy.
1764-1845. Known as Viscount Howick between 1806 and 1807, was a British Whig statesman and Prime Minister. He became one of the major leaders of the Whig party. Grey was noted for advocating Parliamentary reform and Catholic emancipation. In 1830, the Whigs finally returned to power, with Grey as Prime Minister. His Ministry was a notable one, seeing passage of the Reform Act 1832, which finally saw the reform of the House of Commons, and the abolition of slavery throughout the British Empire in 1833. As the years passed, however, Grey became more conservative. In 1834 Grey retired from public life, leaving Lord Melbourne as his successor.
1537-1554. She is remembered as the ‘Nine Day Queen’, before Mary Tudor was confirmed as queen in 1553, after the death of her half-brother Edward VI.
as buried in the courtyard of the
A Roman foundation
BkXII:Chap5:Sec1 Mentioned. The
He was a co-translator of
c540-604. Pope from 590, his appointment was confirmed by the Emperor Maurice.
Gregory V, né Bruno
c972-999. Pope from May 996.
BkXXXVII:Chap5:Sec1 Silvester II his successor was actually Pope in 1001.
d1085. Pope 1073-1085.
BkXX:Chap9:Sec1 Mentioned. On Christmas Eve, 1075, as the Pope was distributing Holy Communion at Midnight Mass in Santa Maria Maggiore, a group of men entered the Church, took Gregory captive, and demanded surrender of church property. Gregory refused to. Later that morning the local Roman people forced their way into the castle where Gregory was prisoner and freed him.
1210-1276. Pope 1271-1276. To him is due the bull which, subsequently incorporated into the code of canon law, regulated all conclaves for Papal elections until the reforms of Pope Paul VI (1963–78).
538-594. A French historian, he was Bishop of Tours (from 573), born
BkIX:Chap16:Sec1 Chateaubriand refers to his Historia III.26
1758-1839. A member of the Neapolitan
nobility he was supposed to be an illegitimate son of Charles III. He was
BkXXX:Chap1:Sec1 A candidate for the Papacy in 1829 when he received twenty four votes.
BkXXX:Chap1:Sec2 An anti-Jesuit voter.
The Field of Mars in
BkXXII:Chap14:Sec1 Napoleon’s instructions to blow up the magazine there in 1814.
1766-1827. A General, he was appointed by Louis XVIII to the 8th military division. In the spring of 1815 he was elected to the new Chamber of Representatives of which he was elected vice-president.
BkXXIII:Chap18:Sec2 A member of the executive committee.
The City in south-east
BkIII:Chap1:Sec2 The monastery of the Grand Chartreux or Charterhouse is the mother abbey of the Carthusian Order. St Bruno founded the Order in the Alpine valley. Chateaubriand visited it in 1805.
BkXXIII:Chap13:Sec1 Louis XVIII sent the Fifth Regiment, led by
Marshal Ney to counter Bonaparte at
1759-1834. British statesman; he was the youngest son of George Grenville. He was foreign secretary in the ministry of his cousin William Pitt from 1791 to 1801. During the French Revolutionary Wars, Grenville led the British war party and favoured Pitt’s repressive internal measures. He was also a champion of free trade and of Catholic Emancipation. In 1806 he formed the ‘Ministry of all the talents,’ which abolished (1807) the slave trade.
BkXII:Chap5:Sec3 Chateaubriand heard him speak.
1714-1813. A Belgian composer, who lived and died in
BkV:Chap14:Sec1 His daughters and their death.
BkV:Chap15:Sec2 La Barbe-bleue, Bluebeard, a comedy by Sedaine with music by Grétry, staged at the Théâtre-Italien in March 1789.
The Place de Grève was, before 1803, the name of the square, now the City Hall Square (Place de l’Hôtel de Ville), in Paris. It was the site of most of the public executions. The gallows and the pillory stood there. The highest-profile executions took place in the Grève, including the gruesome deaths of the regicides Jacques Clément, François Ravaillac, and Robert–François Damiens.
1641-1711/2. Botanist. His first important work appeared in 1672 when he published An Idea of a Phytological History of Plants. He was secretary of the Royal Society from 1677, and published his second great work on the Anatomy of Plants (1682), in which he described the function of flowers and announced the sexual reproduction of plants. With the Italian microscopist Marcello Malpighi, he is considered to be among the founders of the science of plant anatomy.
BkV:Chap15:Sec3 His work consulted by Chateaubriand.
He was the Ambassador of Naples to
Grignan, Françoise-Marguerite de Sévigné, Madame de
1646-1705. Daughter of Madame de Sévigné she was the recipient of her famous letters, 750 or so, over a period of thirty years. She married, 1669, Comte François de Grignan, a Farmer-General, and lived on his estate of that name in the Drôme.
Grignon, Louis, General
A general in the Army of the West during the Revolution, he savagely suppressed revolt in the Vendée.
1723-1807. His acquaintance with Rousseau, through a mutual sympathy in regard to musical matters, ripened into intimate friendship, and led to a close association with the encyclopaedists. A witty pamphlet entitled Le Petit Prophète de Boeh-mischbroda (1753), written by him in defence of Italian as against French opera, established his literary reputation. In 1753 Grimm, following the example of the Abbé Raynal, began a literary correspondence with various German sovereigns. Raynal’s letters, Nouvelles littéraires, ceased early in 1755. With the aid of friends, especially of Diderot and Mme d’Épinay, during his temporary absences from France, Grimm himself carried on the correspondence, which consisted of two letters a month, until 1773, and eventually counted among his subscribers Catherine II of Russia, Stanislas Poniatowski, king of Poland, and many princes of the smaller German States.It was probably in 1754 that Grimm was introduced by Rousseau to Madame d’Epinay, with whom he soon formed a liaison which led to an irreconcilable rupture between him and Rousseau. Rousseau was induced by his resentment to give in his Confessions a wholly mendacious portrait of Grimm's character. He became minister of Saxe-Gotha at the court of France in 1776, but in 1777 he left Paris on a visit to St Petersburg, where he remained for nearly a year in daily intercourse with Catherine. He acted as Paris agent for the empress in the purchase of works of art, and executed many confidential commissions for her. In 1792 he emigrated, and in the next year settled in Gotha, where his poverty was relieved by Catherine, who in 1796 appointed him minister of Russia at Hamburg. On the death of the empress Catherine he took refuge with Mme d'Epinay's granddaughter, Emilie de Belsunce, comtesse de Bueil.
1727-1799. Engineer-General of the Marine, he
was Royal ship designer, and designer of the naval dockyards and harbours at
BkXIX:Chap12:Sec2 Napoleon sends him a letter of criticism.
BkXIX:Chap16:Sec1 His painting Bonaparte
visiting the Plague-Victims of
BkXX:Chap6:Sec2 His painting Napoléon on the field of
Eylau, portraying the battlefield
1583-1645. The Dutch jurist, politician, and theologian, whose major work, On the Law of War and Peace (1625), is considered the first comprehensive treatise on international law.
BkXVIII:Chap8:Sec2 His sacred tragedy in Latin, Adamus Exul of 1601.
Liberum (The Freedom of the Seas)
published in 1609. Oxiensterna appointed him
Swedish Ambassador in
1615-1678 Second son of Hugh, he was
of Amsterdam in 1660, later of
1766-1847. A French general during the French Revolutionary and Napoleonic wars, he was made a marshal after Napoleon’s return from during the Hundred Days. His questionable tactical decisions, for example his failure to prevent the Prussians from joining the English, are often thought to be largely responsible for Napoleon’s defeat in the Waterloo campaign.
Commanded a mounted squadron during the retreat from
Adjutant to the Duc d’Enghien.
1674-1759. Bishop of
The River, c.350 miles long,
rises in the Sierra de Cazorla, south-east
1538-1612. He was an Italian poet, who served
at the court of Ferrara and in
BkXL:Chap1:Sec1 He was born in
He was Chief clerk to the State of
The Guelphs and Ghibellines were factions supporting, respectively, the Papacy and the Holy Roman Empire in central and northern Italy during the 12th and 13th centuries.
BkXXX:Chap2:Sec1 Chateaubriand’s view of the factions.
He was an officer in the Navarre Regiment.
BkIV:Chap4:Sec1 Chateaubriand encountered him in 1786.
1748-1816. Born at Rennes. Emigrée, royalist agent under the Directory, he ended his career as a prefect at the Restoration.
Chateaubriand dined with him in
Among the Bretons imprisoned in the Bastille in July 1788 and released in the
September when Loménie de Brienne was
Present at the
1591-1666. He was an Italian Painter and engraver.
1774-1833. A French painter, he won enthusiastic recognition in 1799 for his Marius Sextus (Louvre). A defender of the classicism of David, he became director of the École de Rome in 1822. He counted among his pupils Delacroix, Géricault, and Ary Scheffer, who were to launch the romantic school. Among his best-known works are Aeneas and Dido, Clytemnestra, and Andromache, all in the Louvre.
He returned to
Chateaubriand sees him in
Chateaubriand dined with him on
BkXXXVI:Chap1:Sec1 Guerin’s painting of the Virgin, of 1821, disappeared in 1871 during the Commune.
1787-1866. A lawyer he served as Minister for Education in 1829. He was condemned after the revolution of 1830, and was imprisoned in the fortress of Ham for five years, before retiring to his château of Ranville (Calvados).
It is the second largest of the
BkVIII:Chap7:Sec1 Chateaubriand nearly shipwrecked there.
BkX:Chap3:Sec1 Chateaubriand arrives there in November 1792.
Byron’s mistress in
Ravenna (1819-1823). She married again, in 1851, the
Boissy (1798-1866) a collaborator with
BkXII:Chap4:Sec3 Chateaubriand met her in
BkXXX:Chap12:Sec1 Chateaubriand sees her in
1722-1801. Peer of
under the British flag in the Peninsular War, he became a
lieutenant-general in the French army in 1823, and in 1830 accompanied
Charles X of
BkXXVII:Chap5:Sec1 Visited Chateaubriand in
BkXXXII:Chap12:Sec1 At Saint-Cloud on
1802-1882. She was the wife of Agénor (1818).
BkXXXVII:Chap7:Sec1 Chateaubriand visits her.
1165-1227. A historian and poet, he was chaplain to Philippe Auguste. He was the author of La Philippide, a verse chronicle of the king’s reign, quoted by Chateaubriand.
BkI:Chap1:Sec3 A source of information on Chateaubriand’s lineage.
BkVI:Chap5:Sec1 Chateaubriand quotes from La Philippide, canto I line 30.
BkIX:Chap12:Sec1 Chateaubriand quotes from La Philippide, canto XII, line 782. (‘To whom with our help accrued a brilliant victory.’)
Chateaubriand quotes from La Philippide, canto IV:317-321. Ascalon
much further south is confused with
BkXLI:Chap6:Sec1 Chateaubriand refers to La Philippide.
1785-1846. Wife (1804) of Prince William, she was the daughter
The death of her mother
January 1871 – March 1888 as German Emperor and January 1861 –
I, William I of the
1772-1843 He was named ‘Sovereign Prince’ of the Netherlands in 1813, proclaimed himself King in 1815, ruled until 1830 when he became King of Holland alone, and abdicated in 1840. William I was also the grand duke of Luxembourg.
A legendary hero (15th century tale) of disputed historical authenticity who is said to have lived in the Canton of Uri in Switzerland in the early 14th century. His defiance of the Austrians sparked a rebellion, leading to the formation of the Old Swiss Confederacy.
He was a fisherman of Saint-Pierre.
1774-1840. A soldier in the Revolution and
BkXIV:Chap8:Sec1 His lies.
BkXV:Chap7:Sec2 Denounced by Fesch as a Russian agent.
1799-1874 A radical he was involved in a
number of plots, and had an important role in the Society of the Rights of Man.
Condemned to deportation he escaped prison in July 1835 and fled to
BkXXXII:Chap5:Sec1 At the Tuileries in July 1830.
BkXXXII:Chap11:Sec1 A member of the Republican Municipal Commission in July 1830.
the Palais-Royal on
1788-1847. A French poet, dramatist, and author, he contributed to the opera Pharamond in 1825, for which he was made a Baron by Charles X.
BkXXIX:Chap16:Sec1 His Les Macchabées ou Le Martyre was staged in 1822. This may have been an adaptation. The Maccabees were Jewish rebels who fought against the rule of Antiochus IV Epiphanes of the Hellenistic Seleucid dynasty, who was succeeded by his infant son Antiochus V Eupator. The Maccabees founded the Hasmonean royal dynasty and established Jewish independence in the Land of Israel for about one hundred years, from 165 BC to 63 BC.
Guischardt, Karl Gottlieb
1724-1775. A historian of Roman military matters, whom Frederick the Great called Quintus Icilius after Julius Caesar’s aide de camp.
Guise, François de Lorraine, Duc de
1519-1563. 2nd Duc de Guise, he was leader with his brother Charles, Cardinal of Lorraine (1524-1574) of the Roman Catholic party in the Wars of Religion. He was assassinated by a Huguenot.
Guise, Henri I de Lorraine, Duc de, called Le Balafré (The Cicatrice)
1550-1588. Henri de Lorraine, 3rd Duc de Guise, son of François, helped to plan the massacre of St. Bartholomew’s
Day and after 1576 formed the Catholic League. Immensely ambitious and popular,
called ‘the people’s king’, he instigated the revolt of
BkXXXII:Chap3:Sec1 The Paris revolt in 1588.
leader of the house of Guise, he was already archbishop of
1579-1663. He was Captain of the Guards of Anne of Austria (1643) and Governor of Saumur 1650.
Commander 1st Regiment Cuirassiers.
1787-1874. French statesman and historian, he became a professor of
modern history at the
BkXXIX:Chap14:Sec1 His historical system.
Salic law (Latin, lex Salica)
was a body of traditional law to govern the Salian Franks that was codified in
the early 6th century, during the reign of
Ripuary Law, of the Franks on the banks of
BkXXXI:Chap4:Sec1 Chateaubriand helped his election as Deputy for a seat in the Calvados, which he won in January 1830. The relations between the two men were initially warm but later hostile as Chateaubriand considered Guizot a supporter of Press censorship and a political opponent in many respects, though he appreciated his literary work.
BkXXXI:Chap7:Sec1 He co-wrote the address for the opening of the Session of 1830 on the 2nd of March.
BkXXXII:Chap4:Sec1 Held a meeting of the monarchist party on
BkXXXII:Chap8:Sec1 Appointed as a Commissioner on
BkXXXII:Chap14:Sec1 Drafts a proclamation on
1673-1731. An enlightened scholar and historian who was laden with titles in ridicule by Frederick-William I. Humiliated by the king and frustrated at his sense of powerlessness, he gradually drank himself to death.
1805-1866. A Polish nobleman, and agent of
the Polish Revolutionary Government, he took refuge in
A town in Kaliningrad Oblast, Russia. It is situated close to the border with Lithuania, east of Chernyakhovsk. Gusev was part of East Prussia and was known by its German name, Gumbinnen.
BkXX:Chap13:Sec1 Napoleon there in June 1812.
King of Sweden from 1792 until his
abdication in 1809, he was the son of Gustav III of
loss of possessions to
Gustavus Adolphus of
1594-1632. Gustav II Adolf of
The picaresque hero of a work by the Spanish writer Mateo Alemán (1547-1614), popularised by Le Sage in 1732. The character is noted for his duality, self-contradictions, and a career dominated by reversals of fortune.
BkXXII:Chap 26:Sec1 Mentioned.
1786-1865. Wife of the 2nd Baron Gwydir, Peter Robert
Drummond-Willoughby, 21st Lord Willoughby de Eresby (1782-1865) she was a