c1505-1573. A French Statesman, he was Chancellor of France under
Catherine de Medici. He favoured the Edict of Romorantin (1560) which
deprived the secular courts of jurisdiction in cases involving religion, and
was responsible for edicts granting liberty of conscience (1561) and restricted
liberty of worship (1562). He withdrew from court during the first War of
Religion (1562–63) but returned to power and in 1566 was the author of
important judicial reforms. After the outbreak (1567) of the second War of
Religion he was forced out of office (1568) by Charles and Henri de Guise. In
his retirement he composed Latin poetry.
The region in northern France, located between the Seine and Loire rivers.
It now comprises the Eure-et-Loir département and parts of Loiret and Loir-et-Cher.
The region shared the history of the county of Chartres, which is its only
1786-1815. He brought over to Napoleon the 7th Regiment of the Line,
during the Hundred Days, and enabled the successful march on Paris. He was named by Napoleon a general and Peer
of France. Arrested on the 2nd of May 1815, he was dragged before a court martial then
shot on the Plain of Grenelle, on the 19th of August.
1699-1753. A member of the nobility of Saint-Malo, La Bourdonnais was born
in the city in 1699. Lieutenant in the East Indies Company in 1718, he took
part in the capture of the main islands of the Seychelles archipelago in 1725 which were called Mahé
after him. In 1735 he became a very young Governor of Mauritius and the Réunion
islands, where he instigated economic development. He commanded a squadron in
1741 and defeated the Marathi who was attacking Mahé. Dupleix, the Colonial
Executive and Nabob of India asked for his help against the English and
La Bourdonnais took Madras in 1746. He had dealings with his previous enemies, and Dupleix
complained. He was recalled to France and imprisoned in the Bastille for three
years. At his trial in 1751, he was acquitted and ended his life in Paris.
1767-1839. Fought with the Chouans
in the Vendée, and was an ultra-right wing member (leader of the White Jacobins) of the Chambre introuvable from 1815. Interior
Minister under Polignac in 1829,
he was quickly dismissed for extremism. He lost his position as Minister of
State and Charles X private advisor in the July Revolution.
1701-1785.A French magistrate
(Advocate-General of the Breton Parlement
in 1730-1752, Attorney-General in 1752) who led the Parlement (high court of justice) in a protracted legal battle
against the authority of the government of King Louis XVparticularly with the Duke of Pivot, who was Governor of Brittany
and the King's representative, concerning the influence and fate of the Jesuit
order. This led him to be seen as the head of the parliamentary opposition, and
in 1765 he was imprisoned by Louis XV and later exiled. He was restored by
Louis XVI in 1775.The struggle resulted in the
purging and suspensions (1771–74) of the Parlements.
The affair involved Chateaubriand’s maternal relatives. His aunt and his cousin
Moreau rashly having made false accusations were obliged to make a public
retraction, and paid a heavy fine.
Built for the French fleet in
1801, the 36 ton Frigate Chiffone Captain Pierre Guiyesse captured (June 1801)
the British Bellona on her way to London
with a rich cargo from Bengal. The Bellona and her prize
crew were taken to Mauritius.
In the encounter the Chiffone had her mizzen mast crippled, and while this was
being repaired a vessel was seen to approach (19th August), flying the
Tricolor. When close to the Chiffone the French flag was replaced by the Union
Jack, this vessel being the British frigate Sybille, Captain Charles Adam. Both
ships opened fire for a battle lasting 17 minutes before the French surrendered
with 50 men dead. The Chiffone was repaired and re-commissioned as a British
frigate and was in action off the Havre in 1805. Her total complement was 264.
On the 11th July 1801, she had arrived in the Seychelles carrying exiled Republicans.
Following plans designed by Vauban,
engineer Siméon de Garangeau (1647-1741) extended the town, revamped its
fortifications and built sea forts on the small islands off the city, Petit Bé,
Grand Bé and FortRoyal, later renamed FortNational, La Conchée, and Cézembre.
1779-1849 The son of the
Marquis, after a military career he retired in 1807,
then after 1815 pursued a political career. He accompanied his father to America
in 1824. He was aide-de-camp to his father in 1830, and was an opposition
politican under Louis-Philippe. He was Deputy for the Seine-et-Marne to the
Constituent Assembly of 1848.
1757-1834. General and Politician, he was prominent at the start of the
Revolution. His early career was distinguished by military success against the
British in American Revolution (1777-1779, 1780-1782). As a representative of
the States-General he presented the Declaration of the Rights of Man in 1789.
In 1792 the rising power of the radicals threatened him, and he went to Austria. He was later prominent in the July
Revolution of 1830 which overthrew Charles
Appointed to lead the citizens’ militia which became the National Guard, after
the fall of the Bastille in July 1789.
1634-1693.AFrench writer, she married in
1651 the Chevalier de Sévigné, and thus became connected with Mme de Sévigné, who was destined to be a
lifelong friend. Her first novel, La
Princesse de Montpensier, was published anonymously in 1662; Zayde appeared in 1670 under the name of
J. de Segrais; and in 1678 her masterpiece, La
Princesse de Cleves, also under the name of Segrais.
1759-1807.The daughter of Jean-Louis-Paul-François, Duc d’Ayen and
Duc de Noailles, she lost her mother and sister to the guillotine and barely
escaped execution herself (1794). After a failed attempt to have her
(they married in 1774) released from an Austrian prison, she shared his prison
cell in Olmuts (1795-97). They had four children: Henriette, Anastasie,
Virginie, and George Washington.
Sunk by the English near the Seychelles on the 2nd September 1801, this French national corvette was commanded by Lieutenant Bonamy and
armed with twenty long 8-pounders and two stern chasers. She had landed a
number of banished Frenchmen in the Seychelles and was intending to sail to the Bay of Bengal to prey on British shipping. She was raised again
in 1803 and was being refitted, but on being discovered by the English was
abandoned and burnt.
Used to transport Republican exiles to the Seychelles arriving July/August 1801.
1621-1695. Author of the Fables
(1688-1694) sophisticated verse treatments of traditional fables from the collections
of Aesop, Phaedrus and others. His many other works include his bawdy verse
tales (Contes, 1664) which he
supposedly repudiated after his religious conversion in 1692.
Chateaubriand, perhaps unconsciously, quotes the first verse of La Fontaine’s
fable ‘The Acorn and the Pumpkin’ (Fables
Chateaubriand quotes from ‘The Monkey and the Cat’ (Fables IX.16)
Chateaubriand quotes the last line of Vieillard
et les trois jeunes hommes (Fables
BkIX:Chap1:Sec1BkXLII:Chap7:Sec1Chateaubriand quotes from La Cigale et la Fourmi (The Cicada and the Ant, Fables I.1), with himself as the singing
Cicada in the first instance and George Sand in the second.
Chateaubriand refers to Le Chat, la
Belette et le petit Lapin (Fables,
1738-1821. Brother of Anne-César, he was
Bishop of Langres from 1770. Deputy to the States-General, he emigrated in 1791
to Venice, living there until 1800. He recovered his
see, and title in 1814. Created Cardinal in 1817, he never received the red hat
and title. He transferred to the Metropolitan see of Paris.
1763-1827. Former Captain of Dragoons, a printer in
Brunswick during the Revolution, and a royalist.
Intrigued at Naples, and Fesch
ordered his arrest while he was in Rome in 1803, at which he left for Tuscany. He became a deputy during the Restoration
and then a plenipotentiary Minister at Florence. He had literary pretensions.
La Marche, Friedrich William Moritz Alexander, Comte
de (Graf von der Mark, Brandenburg)
1778-1787 He was the beloved illegitimate son of Frederick-William II of Prussia and his mistress the Countess of Lichtenau (1796). His memorial urn of 1788/9 by
Johann Gottfried Schadow, found in the lake, was recently restored to the ‘NewGarden’ in Potsdam.
1709-1751. Born 25th of December, 1709. He studied natural philosophy
then medicine and wrote widely on medical and philosophical matters. He moved
to Paris in 1742. Whilst living in Paris he suffered a violent fever which led him to
believe that disorders of the mind were due to physical malfunctions of the
brain and nervous system. He had his ideas printed under the title of ‘The
Natural History of the Soul’. This cost him his job and in 1746 he was forced
to flee France, pursued by the priesthood. He escaped to Leyden and continued his work, taunting his critics
with his writings including his now famous treatise ‘Man a Machine’. The
reaction of the priesthood to this work forced him to flee once again, this
time escaping to Prussia before moving to Berlin in February 1748. He died on 11
November 1751 aged
43 leaving his wife Louise Charlotte Dreano and a 5 year old daughter.
1720-1791. Commander of a squadron in 1778, he took part in the battle
of Ushant. He performed distinguished action during
the United States War of Independence. He joined D’Estaing’s squadron in Martinique in June 1779 and took part in the battle off
Grenada and the attack on Savannah. On December 18 in front of Royal Fort of
Martinique, he attacked the English squadron under Admiral Hyde-Parker who
tried to bar the roads. The skill of
the operation and the ferocity of the action earned him a letter of
congratulation from the English admiral! Commanding in 1781 a division
of 6 vessels and 3 frigates, he intercepted the English convoy under Admiral
Rodney and destroyed 26 ships. He was named lieutenant-general of the naval
armies in January 1782. He died in Brest on June 10,
1791. BkII:Chap8:Sec2 Mentioned.
1531-1591.French Protestant general in the Wars of Religion. He
fought at Jarnac (1569) and Moncontour (1569). In 1570 he lost his left arm in
battle and had it replaced with an iron hook, whence he became known as Bras-de-fer
(iron-arm), as well as the Huguenot Bayard. He took
part in the Netherlands expedition sponsored by Gaspard de
His reputation for fairness led to his being sent by King Charles
to negotiate (1572–73) with the defenders of La Rochelle. After the failure of these negotiations
he gave up his commission and assumed the leadership of the Protestant forces
in Western France (1574–78). He fought for the Dutch
Protestants against the Spanish, but was captured (1580) and held prisoner for
five years. At this time he wrote Discours politiques et militaires
(1587, tr. 1587). He fought under King Henry IV at Arques
BkX:Chap1:Sec1 Captured by
1580 he was handed over to the Duke of Parma, Alexander Farnese, who imprisoned
him in the castle
until 1585. He died in Brittany,
mortally wounded at the siege of
1741-1788. The French explorer
and naval officer who mapped the west coast of North America in 1786, and visited
Easter Island and the
Sandwich Islands (Hawaii). He was lost at sea while searching for the
Solomon Islands (after reaching
Bay). His ships were
wrecked, and the survivors probably killed by the inhabitants of Vanikoro.
1765-1841. An émigré, he returned to live quietly on his estate at
Montmirail. Made a Peer of France in 1815, he was named Director of the Postal
Services (1822), then in 1824 Minister of the King’s Household.
1613-1680.AFrench writer, who as head of
an ancient family (in his youth he bore the title prince de Marcillac) opposed Richelieu and was later active in
both Frondes. Wounded and disheartened, he made his peace (1652) and retired to
his estates in Angoumois. Later
he settled (c.1658) in Paris where
he moved in the literary circle of Mme de Sablé, which included Mme de La Fayette, whose close friendship had an important
influence on him. Although his Mémoires are interesting historically, La
Rochefoucauld’s place in French literature is assured by his moral maxims and
reflective epigrams, which are marked by lucidity and polished brilliance. A
collection was published in 1665 as Réflexions ou sentences et maximes
morales. The fifth edition, which appeared in his lifetime, contained 504
1785-1864. Son of Ambroise,
of Doudeauville, son-in-law of Mathieu de Montmorency, he was charged with
the department of the fine arts, in the ministry of Charles X’s household until the end
of the Restoration. He was thus in control of the museums, royal manufactures,
the Conservatory and the five royal theatres: the Opera, the François, the
Odeon, the Opera-Comique, and the Italiens. He became Duc de Doudeaville.
1772-1794. A French commander, he was leader
of the counter-revolutionary army in the Vendée. His legendary
gallantry and tactical abilities were of little avail against superior Republican
armies. He was killed in battle at Nouaillé.
A seaport on the Atlantic Ocean, it is the capital of the Charente-Maritime
département. The city is connected to the Île de Ré by a bridge,
completed in 1988. Its harbour opens into a protected strait, the Pertuis d’Antioche.
A 10th century foundation it became a Huguenot stronghold reduced by Cardinal Richelieu, and later a centre of
the triangular trade.
1761-1811. A Spanish officer he fought in the American Revolutionary
IV, bullied and pressured by Napoleon, agreed in 1807 to provide a division
to bolster the French army in Germany. La Romana was made commander of this ‘Division
of the North’ and spent 1807 and 1808 performing garrison duties in Hamburg and
later Denmark under Marshal Bernadotte.
When the Peninsular War broke out, La Romana made plans to repatriate his men
to Spain. That 9,000 men of the 14,000-strong division were able to board British
ships on August 27 and escape to Spain was chiefly due to his subterfuge and
organizational skills. La Romana drove the French from Asturias. In 1809, he
was appointed to the Central Junta and served until 1810. He then returned to
military operations under Wellington but died suddenly on January 23, 1811
without again seeing major action.
1640-1693.The wife of Antoine Rambouillet, Sieur de la Sablière
(1624-1679), a Protestant financier entrusted with the administration of the
royal estates, her salon became a meeting-place for poets, scientists, men of
letters, and courtiers of Louis XIV. About 1673 Madame de la Sablière received
into her house
Fontaine, whom she sponsored for twenty years.
1744-1830. Created a Cardinal in 1795, he was expelled from
Rome by the French in 1808. He was made Dean of
the Sacred College in 1820, and was a zelante in the Conclave of 1823. Named
Secretary of State by Leo XII he gave up his functions in June 1828.
1768-1850. He was made a Peer under the Restoration, Ambassador to
London in 1819, and Minister of War 1819-1821. He
was also Governor of the Invalides. He
was wounded at Borodino, and lost a leg at Wachau.
1644-1710. She was the mistress of King Louis XIV
of France. Maid of honour to Louis’ sister-in-law, Henrietta of England, she became the king's mistress in 1661. She
bore him four children, of whom two died in infancy. In 1667, by the same
government act that legitimized her daughter, she was created duchess. She was
replaced in the king’s affections by Mme de Montespan.
In 1674 she retired to a Carmelite
convent and became celebrated for her piety.
1526-1566. A poetess, she was born into a prosperous family of
rope-makers. In 1555 Euvres de Louize Labe
Lionnoize was published in Lyons: it contained a prose
dedicatory epistle to a local noblewoman, a prose Debat de Folie et d'Amour,
24 sonnets (the first in Italian), and three elegies; the work concluded
with 24 poems by other writers, praising Labe’s
ability. The book was popular enough that three other editions came out within
a year (the first "revues et
corrigees par la dite Dame"), and it was widely-read enough to bring
both praise from beyond Lyons and
criticism for being immodest and ‘unwomanly.’ Sometime after 1556, she
apparently left Lyon to live in the countryside. Her
husband died in the early 1560s and she died, perhaps of the plague in 1566.
1769-1842. A Friend of the Bertin
brothers, he was a shareholder in the Journal
of Debates. Employed in the Ministry of Foreign Affairs under Talleyrand’s protection, he was
accused by Fouché of leaking
confidential information. He had to hide to escape the police and fled France for a time.
naturalist, he won the favour of Buffon,
who secured him a position at the Jardin du Roi (later the Jardin des Plantes).
His best-known works deal with the oviparous quadrupeds, reptiles, fishes, and
whales; they are frequently printed with Buffon’s works, which they supplement.
Lacépède was active in politics and was exiled during the Reign of Terror.
After his return he gave up scientific work for a political career and held
several state offices. Napoleon appointed him Grand Chancellor.
1741-1803. His father was a government official who was ennobled but
without a title. Laclos joined the army and with the end of the Seven Years War
in 1763, was transferred to north-eastern France. It was while stationed there that he
published his first literary piece, a poem in a periodical in 1767. In 1769 he
moved to Grenoble where he stayed until being garrisoned in
Besançon in 1775. During this period he was promoted and published other minor
verse. In December 1776 he became a freemason. The following year saw the sole
performance in Paris of his comic opera, Ernestine, adapted from the tale of the
same name by the successful novelist, Mme Riccoboni. It is possible that Laclos
began writing his most famous work, Les Liaisons dangereuses in 1778. He
was certainly engaged on the drafting of the novel while working on the
fortifications of the island
of Aix in 1779. To aid the composition of his
novel, he was on leave in Paris in 1780 and 1781 where he began moves to have his work published. The
first edition of the novel appeared in April 1782. In 1788 he entered the
service of the Duke of Orléans and accompanied his employer to London in 1790. He engaged in revolutionary
activity, using the power of his pen. He resigned from the army in 1791. In the
thick of political in-fighting, he was arrested and then released in the spring
of 1793, only to be incarcerated again in November. He expected to be
guillotined, but was set free in December 1794. After miscellaneous activities
in the succeeding years, Laclos was appointed an artillery general in 1800
under Napoleon, and fulfilled various military functions before dying in Italy.
1766-1855. Lacretelle the younger was
journalist then historian, and wrote the first great History of the Revolution
(1821-26). He was proscribed after Vendémiaire, and imprisoned after Fructidor.
He published an account of his tribulations.
1751-1824. A French politician and writer, he practised as a barrister
in Paris; and under the Revolution was elected as
deputy in the Legislative Assembly. He belonged to the moderate party known as
the Feuillants, but after the 10th
of August 1792 he
ceased to take part in public life. In 1803 he became a member of the
Institute, taking the place of Laharpe. Under the
Restoration he was one of the chief editors of the Minerve française; he wrote also an essay, Sur le 18 Brumaire (1799), some Fragments
politiques et litteraires (1817), and a treatise Des parlis politiques et des factions de Ca pretendue aristocratie d’aujourd-hui
1785-1854. A well-known Paris bookseller, then publisher, with premises in
the Palais-Royal (having married the proprietress in 1817), who initiated
public advertising of new books on placards around Paris. He moved subsequently to a fine house on
the Rue Chabanais. The son of peasants, he had a flair for marketing, and a
taste for luxury. He published Hugo, Delavigne, Lamartine and other Romantics,
and many translations from English and German. He was bankrupted under Louis-Philippe and died in the CharityHospital.
Chateaubriand sold him the rights to his complete works, for 550,000 francs, in
March 1826. Thirty volumes duly appeared between June and December 1826 (others
through to 1832). With Ladvocat in financial difficulties Chateaubriand agreed
to a reduction, to 350,000 francs, in February 1827. In November 1828, Ladvocat
sold the rights to Pourrat and Delandine for only 10,000 francs. Chateaubriand presumably
lost about 200,000 francs on the original deal.
1681-1746. A Jesuit missionary and writer, he entered the Society in
1696, and the general, Tamburini, yielding to his entreaties, sent him to Canada in 1711. Appointed to the mission of Sault
Saint-Louis (Caughnawaga), he made a thorough study of Iroquois character and
usages, as a preparation to his great work ‘Mœures
des Sauvages américains comparées aux mœurs des premiers temps’: published
in 1724. It was then that he discovered ginseng, a root highly prized as a
panacea in China and Tartary, one ounce selling for as high as three ounces of silver.
This discovery created an excitement comparable to that caused later by the
finding of gold in California and Australia; but the exportation of the root, after
promising immense profits to Canadian trade, rapidly decreased, owing to
over-production and inferiority of quality due to hasty and artificial
desiccation. Lafitau’s treatise on ginseng (1718) drew public attention to this
apparent source of prosperity. In 1717, he returned to France in the interests of the mission, chiefly to
obtain authorization from Court to transfer the Iroquois settlement to its
present superior site. He likewise pleaded for the repression of the liquor
traffic. In spite of his wish to return to Canada, where his knowledge of Indian languages and
customs rendered him so valuable that Father Julien Garnier wished him to have
him recalled, he was retained in France. After Charlevoix,
Lafitau was the most remarkable historian and naturalist ever sent to Canada by the Society of Jesus.
1767-1844. AFrench banker and politician, he became a partner in a
Perregaux banking house in 1800 and head of the firm in 1804. As governor of
the Bank of France (1814–19), he raised large sums of money for the provisional
government in 1814 and for Louis XVIII during the Hundred Days. He saved
Paris from a financial crisis in 1818. An early
partisan of a constitutional monarchy under Louis-Philippe,
he did much to secure Louis-Philippe's accession to the throne, and he briefly
served as premier (1830–31) in the July Monarchy.
1756-1846. Career diplomat and protégé of Talleyrand, he participated in the
Congress of Luneville, then represented France at the Diet of Ratisbonne. He was
plenipotentiary minister in Berlin from 1805-1807.
1736-1813.He was aFrench mathematician and
astronomer, of French and Italian descent. Before the age of 20 he was
professor of geometry at the royal artillery school at Turin.
With his pupils he organized (1759) a society from which the Turin Academy of
Sciences developed. Among his early successes were his method of solving
iso-perimetrical problems, on which the calculus of variations is based in
part; his researches on the nature and propagation of sound and on the
vibration of strings; and his studies on the libration of the moon and on the
satellites of Jupiter. On the recommendation of Euler and D’Alembert, Frederick the Great invited him
(1766) to succeed Euler as director of mathematics at the Berlin Academy of
Sciences. During this time he wrote his chief work, Mécanique analytique,
a treatment of mechanics based solely on algebra and the calculus and containing
not a single diagram or geometric explanation. This was published (1788) in
where he had been called by Louis XVI in 1787. In 1793
he became president of the commission on weights and measures; he was
influential in causing the adoption of the decimal base for the metric system.
A professor at the École polytechnique from 1797, he developed the use in
teaching of the analytic method that he so skilfully employed in his research.
He wrote Théorie des fonctions analytiques (1797) and Leçons sur le
calcul des fonctions (1806), both based on his lectures. Under Napoleon, Lagrange was made senator and
count; he is buried in the Panthéon. His contributions to the development of
mathematics also include the application of differential calculus to the theory
of probabilities and notable work on the solution of equations. In astronomy he
is known for his calculations of the motions of planets.
1739-1803. Poet, essayist and member of the Academy, he was already
famous by the start of the Revolution, and supported it until he was arrested
in 1794. After Thermidor, he was a leader of the anti-Jacobin reaction.
His death in February 1803. He had previously published Du Fanatisme dans la langue révolutionnaire. His poem on the
Revolution was Le Triomphe (Published
posthumously by Migneret in 1814): Chateaubriand quotes from Book XII, chapter
V. He remarried at 68, with a Mademoiselle de Hatte-Longuerue, much younger than
himself, but swiftly divorced in 1797.
1767-1835. Politician and magistrate, he was a Member of the
Legislature under the Empire and of the Chamber of Deputies after the
Restoration, chairing the latter 1814-16. Minister of the Interior 1816-18. He
was a Member of the Chamber of Peers and of the Academy.
A legendary hetaera or courtesan of ancient Greece she was born probably in Corinth. Another hetaera with the same name was Lais of
Hyccara. Since ancient authors often confuse them the two are inextricably
linked. The philosopher Aristippus (he twice mentions her) was one of her
1757-1837. Minister of War from June 1792-August 1793, he emigrated to
England. Returned under the Empire and became a
Marshal under the Restoration.
Chateaubriand’s text is in error here. Narbonne dismissed Napoleon in December 1791 when he
returned to Corsica. In April 1792 Napoleon became a lieutenant
colonel second-class in the National Guard at Ajaccio. In July 1792 Lajard accepted Napoleon back
as a captain in the army.
astronomer, who under the direction of the FrenchAcademy of Science, he went to
in 1751 to make observations on the parallax of the moon for comparison with
those that Nicolas Lacaille was making at the Cape of Good Hope.
He was admitted to the BerlinAcademy,
and in 1760 he became professor of astronomy in the Collège de France, holding
the post for 46 years. In 1768 he became director of the Paris Observatory. The
Lalande Prize, which he established in 1802, is awarded for the outstanding
achievement in astronomy each year. His works include Traité d'astronomie
(1764); Histoire céleste française (1801), including a catalog of over
47,000 stars; and Bibliographie astronomique (1802).
1751-1830. Son of Thomas, he obtained
the rehabilitation of his father’s name in 1778, his father having been
condemned to death in 1766 for high treason. He emigrated in 1790, returning in
1792 to assist in vain in the King’s escape.
He was one of those who met and harangued the King at the Hôtel de Ville on
Named a Peer at the same time as Chateaubriand in 1815, he supported a liberal
On the 16th of January 1827, the Academicians voted to present an appeal to the king regarding a
proposed law on the freedom of the Press, despite Lally-Tollendal’s objections.
Charles X rejected the petition
out of hand.
The Dalai Lama is the temporal and spiritual head of the
TibetanState (in exile since 1959). Its traditional
religion is a form of Mahayana Buddhism, with deities, mandalas, and gurus,
introduced in the 7th Century AD,
which has surviving features of Bon shamanism.
1770-1832. Commander during the Napoleonic Wars who later became a member
of French Parliament. He was a noted military patriot and orator. As an
opponent of the Ancien Régime, he is known for his active suppression of
Royalist and Legitimist activity. His death was also the catalyst of a Parisian
uprising in June of 1832.
1790-1869.He was aFrench poet, novelist, and
statesman. After a trip to Italy
and a brief period in the army, Lamartine began to write and achieved immediate
success with his first publication, Méditations poétiques (1820). Its musicality
was developed in Harmonies (1830). His religious orthodoxy becomes a
kind of pantheism in Jocelyn (1836) and La Chute d’un ange
(1838). In politics, his idealism led him to embrace the principles of
democracy, social justice, and international peace. His Histoire des
Girondins (1847), a glorification of the Girondists, was immensely popular,
and after the February Revolution of 1848 Lamartine briefly headed the
provisional government and was a member of the executive committee that
replaced it. His moderation soon cost him the support of both the right and the
left wings of the revolutionists. He competed unsuccessfully for the presidency
with Louis Napoleon Bonaparte (later Napoleon III). Lamartine left politics and
devoted himself entirely to writing, spending much of the remainder of his life
in a hopeless effort to repay the fantastic debts he had accumulated in his
youth. His later prose works include the novel Graziella (1849) and Les
The reference is to an intervention of his in the Chamber of Deputies on the 26th of May 1840 regarding the
return of Napoleon’s remains to France.
‘Je ne suis pas de cette religion
The phrase used of the infant Duc de Bordeaux
derives from Lamartine’s Ode on the Birth
of the Duke of Bordeaux (written in Naples 1820, published 1822).
The old market town of Lambach
lies in the Alpine foreland 15 miles north of the Traunsee and 6 miles
southwest of the town of Wels, on the left bank of the River Traun at the spot
where, having flowed down from the Salzkammergut, it turns eastward.
Devoted friend and favourite of Queen Marie Antoinette of France. Extremely unpopular, she was killed by a mob during the
French Revolution in the September massacres (1792), and her head was displayed
on a pike under the queen's windows.
1766-1854. Archbishop of
1819, then Papal Nuncio to Paris from
1827-1831. The July Monarchy asked for his recall because of his relationship
with the Ultras. He was made a Cardinal in 1831 and Secretary of State in 1836.
1782-1854. In 1816, his Essay on indifference in matters of religion
achieved a remarkable success. An ultramontane and one who denounced the
secular despotism of Napoleon, he dared
to criticise the Charter and to advocate the restoration of absolutism to bring
about the reign of God and the freedom of the peoples on earth. A virulent
polemicist, he lost no opportunity to stigmatise with bitter zeal the
concessions made by the royal government and the cowardice of those clergy and
bishops who were Cartesians, Gallicans and supporters of the Concordat.
Eventually condemned by the Pope, he renounced formal religious convictions,
and effectively died an apostate.
He was fined and imprisoned for a year in December1840 for his pamphlet Le Pays et le Gouvernement. Chateaubriand quotes from his pamphlet
published in Septembver 1841, and written in gaol.
1760-1829.A French soldier and politician, he served
in the American War of Independence under Rochambeau, and in 1789 was a deputy
to the States-General. In the Constituent Assembly he formed with Barnave
and Adrien Duport a ‘Triumvirate’, which controlled the advanced left of the
Assembly. He presented a famous report on the organization of the army, but is
better known for his speech on February 28, 1791, at the Jacobin Club, against Honoré
Mirabeau, whose relations with the
court were suspect, and who was a personal enemy. However, after the flight to Varennes,
Lameth became reconciled with the court. He served in the army but was accused
of treason in 1792, fled the country, and was imprisoned by the Austrians.
After his release he went into business with his brother Charles at Hamburg and did not return to France until
the Consulate. Under the Empire he was made prefect successively in several
departments, and in 1810 was created a baron. In 1814 he attached himself to
the Bourbons, and under the Restoration was appointed prefect of Somme, deputy
for Seine-Inférieure and finally deputy for Seine-et-Oise, in which capacity he
was a leader of the Liberal opposition. He was the author of an important
History of the Constituent Assembly (1828-1829).
politician and soldier, he was in the retinue of the Comte d'Artois (future
King Charles X), and became an
officer in a cuirassier regiment. He served in the American War of
Independence, and was a deputy to the Estates-General of 1789. As the Assembly
began to divide into factions, Lameth, a constitutional monarchist, was
identified with the Feuillants. When
the French Revolution became a Republic, he emigrated. He returned to France
under the Consulate, and was appointed governor of Würzburg under the First
Empire. In 1814, he rose to the rank of Lieutenant General. Like his brother Alexandre, after the Bourbon Restoration, Charles
joined the Bourbon camp, succeeding Alexandre as deputy in 1829. In the final
years of his life, he was nonetheless a noted supporter of the July Monarchy.
BkXXVI:Chap5:Sec1Bonnay satirised him in a poem: ‘La Prise des Annociades’ regarding
surveillance of the convent of the ‘Annonciades’ at Pontoise.
1770-1827. The brother of Auguste, he served
in the émigré army, and was wounded at QuiberonBay. Having emigrated to England, he returned to France under the Consulate, and became the
brother-in-law of Mathieu Molé. A
Peer of France from 1815, he retired to his chateau at Méry-sur-Oise, before
dying in Paris in 1827.
Chateaubriand says that Christian introduced
him to Madame Récamier,
Chateaubriand having first seen her
at Madame de Staël’s. This was
presumably in 1805, since he did not meet her again for twelve years.
1617-1677. Became in 1644 master of requests in the Parlement, took an
active part in the Fronde of the
Parlement against Mazarin. He became first
president of the Parlement in 1658. Made Marquis de Basville in 1670.The great
work which he did towards preparing the codification of French laws has made
him famous. A distinguished member of the Society of the Holy Sacrament, he was
greatly devoted to the Catholic cause.
The largest of the Pelagie Islands in the
Mediterranean, 205 km from Sicily and 113 km from Tunisia. Politically and
administratively Lampedusa is part of Italy, but geologically it belongs to Africa
since the sea between the two is no deeper than 120 meters.
An autonomous city in the Rhineland Palatinate,
occupied by the French from 1680 to 1815, when it was one of the Décapole,
the ten free cities of Alsace, and received its modern fortifications from Louis
XIV’s military architect Vauban, making the little city (population in 1789 was
still only approximately 5,000) one of Europe’s strongest citadels. After the Hundred
Days Landau was granted to Bavaria in 1816 and became the capital of one of the
thirteen Bezirksämter (counties) of the Bavarian Rheinpfalz.
BkXXIII:Chap11:Sec3BkXXIX:Chap13:Sec2Traded at the Congress of Vienna. Note Maximilian I divided Germany into ten ‘circles’ (Austria, Burgundy, the Lower Rhine, Bavaria, Upper Saxony, Franconia, Swabia, the Upper Rhine, Westphalia,
and Lower Saxony)
The Landsturm was the Prussian
and Austrian equivalent of the Levée en masse, or general levy of all
men capable of bearing arms and not included in the other regularly organized
forces, standing army or second line formations, of Continental nations. It was
introduced in Prussia in 1813.
1753-1827. A French Politician and lawyer, he
developed moderate, even reactionary views, becoming one of the fiercest
opponents of the Mountain, though he never wavered in his support of republican
principles. He refused to vote for the death of Louis XVI, alleging that the
nation had no right to despatch a vanquished prisoner. He was President of the
upper house during the Hundred Days. Together with G. J.
B. Target, J. E. M. Portalis and others he
founded under the empire an academy of legislation in Paris, himself lecturing on Roman law. Closely
associated with oriental scholars, and a keen student of oriental religions, he
entered the Academy of Inscriptions in 1808. After the Bourbon restoration,
Lanjuinais consistently defended the principles of constitutional monarchy, but
most of his time was given to religious and political subjects. Besides many
contributions to periodical literature he wrote, among other works, Constitutions
de la nation francaise (1819); Appreciation du projet de loi relatif aux
trois concordats (1806, 6th ed. 1827), in defence of Gallicanism; and Etudes
biographiques et littraires sur Antoine Arnauld, P. Nicole et Jacques Necker
1769-1809.AMarshal of France, he fought
under Napoleon in the Italian and Egyptian campaigns, supported his coup of
18th Brumaire, and distinguished himself at Montebello,
Austerlitz, Jena, Friedland,
and Zaragoza. Napoleon considered Lannes one of his
ablest generals and named him duke of Montebello.
Lannes was killed at the battle of Essling.
1780-1863.A British politician and Irish peer who
served successively as Governor General of Canada, Viceroy of India, Secretary
of State for War, and Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs. He had the
distinction of holding senior positions in both Liberal and Conservative
1734-1826. Author of Voyages d’Antenor
en Grèce et en Asie, avec des Notions sur l'Égypte, Manuscrit Grec trouvé à Herculanum (1798). Lantier’s work of
fiction was a tremendous popular success, and of considerable influence. Basically
it is an imitation of Barthelemy’sAnacharsis but lacks his detailed
knowledge. For this reason Lantier’s work was
referred to as ‘Anacharsis des Boudoirs’.
He was a Trojan priest who tried to warn the Trojans of the Greek
threat. See Virgil’s Aeneid II.
sculpture of Laocoon and his sons, found in 1506 in Rome,
and now in the Vatican
is Hellenistic early 1st century.
A city and commune of France, capital of the Aisne département, the
town was of strategic importance in Roman times. During the Hundred Years’ War
it was attacked and taken by the Burgundians, who gave it up to the English, to
be retaken by the French after the consecration of Charles VII. Under the League,
Laon took the part of the Leaguers, and was taken by Henri IV. During the campaign of
1814 Napoleon tried in vain to dislodge Blücher from it in the Battle of Laon.
1749-1827.TheFrench astronomer and
mathematician, went to Paris at 18,
and proved his gift for mathematical analysis to Jean le Rond d’Alembert. He was made professor of
mathematics in the École militaire de Paris. He had a seat in the senate (1799)
and became its vice president and (1803) chancellor. He was elected to the FrenchAcademy in 1816. He investigated
the variations of the moon's motions, especially as affected by the
eccentricity of the earth's orbit; the inequalities in the motions of Jupiter
and Saturn; the motion of the satellites of Jupiter; the aberration in the
movements of comets; and the theory of the tides. With J. L. Lagrange
he established Newton’s theory of
gravitation. The results of his researches were published in his famous Mécanique
céleste (1799–1825). In the more popular work, Exposition du système du
monde (1796), a summary of the history of astronomy is included. This work
contains also a statement of the nebular hypothesis of the origin of the solar
system. His Théorie des attractions des sphéroides et de la figure des
planètes (1785) introduced ‘Laplace's coefficients’ and the potential
function, two means of applying analysis to physical problems. The Théorie
analytique des probabilités (1812), a mathematical classic, was followed by
Essai philosophique sur les probabilités (1814).
Beneficent Roman spirits, they
watched over the household, fields, public areas etc. Each house had a Lararium
where the image of the Lar was kept. The Lares are usually coupled with the Penates
the gods of the larder. They represented the family and moved where the family
1747-1827. An actor, he commenced his career in 1770, famously playing Orestes
in Iphigénie in 1775. He was arrested
and released in 1793, and then toured the provinces, returning to Paris but retiring in 1800 due to Talma’s dominance of the theatre. In
1804 he opened a school for speech-training. In 1806 he was employed by Joseph, King of Naples, returning to France in 1808. He retired to Montlignon (Val
d'Oise) where he became mayor, dying there in 1827.
1766-1842. Chief Surgeon of the Grand Army, he
is regarded by
many as the most outstanding surgeon of the Napoleonic era and one of the
founders of military surgery. When war broke out in 1792 he became assistant
surgeon to the French army on the Rhine. He was the
first to take first aid treatment to casualties on the battlefield with the
introduction of ambulances and introduced the concept of triage in the
evacuation of his patients. He saw service in Corsica
before becoming professor of surgery at the medical school at Val-de-Grace.
Larrey accompanied Napoleon on his
expeditions to Egypt,
Palestine and Syria
and in 1805 was appointed Surgeon-in-Chief to the French army. He followed
Napoleon to Germany,
and in 1810 he was made a Baron. At Waterloo
he was shot and left for dead. He was eventually captured by the Prussians and
sentenced to death. Having been recognised by the Prussian Field Marshall, Blucher, he was freed and given safe passage
having earlier saved the life of Blucher’s son.
A witness to the atrocity at Jaffa, related
in his account of the Expedition to the East (1803).
1766-1842. The French historian who accompanied Napoleon into exile on St. Helena where the emperor dictated to him a
part of his Memoirs. His famous Mémorial de Sainte-Hélène (tr. 1823) is
a primary source, although not always an accurate one, for Napoleon’s last
years and his judgment of himself. The Mémorial became something of a
bible to Napoleon-worshippers.
Chateaubriand cites Chapter 11 of the Memorial
(20th November 1816).
Chateaubriand refers again to the Memorial
where Las Cases derides the foolish legends of Napoleon’s birth.
1759-1833. Former professor of statistics at the Collège de France, he
was a member of the Paris police bureau from November 1798 to June 1799. He was on the
commission in charge of émigrés after the 18th Brumaire (9th
November 1799) when
Bonaparte came to power. He was a collaborator on the Journal des Débats.
An assumed identity of Chateaubriand’s, that of a Swiss clockmaker from
BkXII:Chap6:Sec1BkXXVII:Chap11:Sec1Chateaubriand’s pseudonym on his false
passport in 1800. The principality of Neuchâtel was under Prussian
jurisdiction. The passport was delivered on the 21st April by the Baron de
Kloest, and gave Chateaubriand’s height as 1.62 metres.
Chateaubriand obtained a document to support his false identity at the Prussian
embassy in Paris, and obtained his permit to stay on Tuesday
the 13th May 1800.
Chateaubriand was removed from the list of émigrés who had fought against the
Republic in July 1801. He was helped by Madame de Staël and Madame Bacciochi, as well as by Fouché’s attitude.
1785-1851.The French poet and novelist is known for his publication
of Andre Chénier (in 1819) and early encouragement of George
(His family name is also spelt ‘de la Touche’ and ‘Delatouche’.) The
was suppressed in 1817 by the government for an obscure political allusion in
an article by Latouche. He then undertook the management of the Mercure du
XIXe siècle, and began a bitter warfare against the monarchy. After 1830 he
edited Le Figaro, and spared neither the liberal politicians nor the
romanticists who triumphed under the monarchy of July. The last twenty years of
his life were spent in retirement at Aulnay.
BkXXII:Chap15:Sec2 The reference is to his Republican liberalism
and probably to his novel Fragoletta
Parliament (1780) rose to the House of Lords after acceding to the Earldom of
Lauderdale on the death of his father. He was renowned for his hostility and
temper and adopted a radical stance, for example supporting the French
Revolution and indeed trying to negotiate a peace treaty with France
in the early years of the 19th C. He was created Baron Lauderdale of
Thirlestane in 1806. He was also a noted economist, writing an Inquiry into
the Nature and Origin of Public Wealth (1804).
and diplomatist, he became brigadier of artillery in 1795. Resigning in 1796 he
was brought back into the service in 1800 as aide-de-camp to Napoleon with whom
as a cadet Lauriston had been on friendly terms. In 1805, having risen to the
rank of general of division, he took part in the war against Austria.
He occupied Venice and Ragusa
in 1806, was made governor-general of Venice
in 1807, took part in the Erfurt
negotiations of 1808, was made a count, served with the emperor in Spain
in 1808-1809 and held commands under the viceroy Eugene Beauharnais in the
Italian campaign and the advance to Vienna
in the same year. At the battle of Wagram
he commanded the guard artillery in the famous ‘artillery preparation’ which
decided the battle. In 1811 he was made ambassador to Russia;
in 1812 he held a command in the Grande Army and won distinction by his
firmness in covering the retreat from Moscow.
He commanded the V army corps at Liitzen and Bautzen
and the V and XI in the autumn campaign, falling into the hands of the enemy in
the disastrous retreat from Leipzig.
He was held a prisoner of war until the fall of the empire, and then joined Louis XVIII, to whom he remained faithful in the Hundred
Days. His reward was a seat in the house of peers and a command in the royal
guard. In 1817 he was created marquis and in 1823 marshal of France.
During the Spanish War he commanded the corps which besieged and took Pamplona.
A city in the French-speaking part of Switzerland,
situated on the shores of Lake Geneva (French: Lac Léman), and facing Évian-les-Bains
(France) and with the Jura hills to its north, it is located some 37 miles
1485-1528. Hero of the wars of Louis XII, then Francis I, in Italy, his brother Thomas appears in
Chateaubriand’s tale of Le Dernier Abencérage; his sister Françoise de Foix,
was the Countess of Chateaubriand loved by Francis I.
1747-1793. He took part in the American Revolution, with his Hussars de
Lauzun, under Rochambeau. He led at
Yorktown in 1781. Appointed to the States-general he
embraced the Revolution. A Lieutenant-general in 1792, he ordered the armies of
Ouest against those of the Vendée in 1793. Accused of treason, he was guillotined
on December 31st 1793.
1769-1830. Aide-de-Camp to Bonaparte, he married Emilie de Beauharnais
(1781-1855) niece of Josephine
in 1798. He was a Councillor of State, and Minister of Posts under Napoleon. Condemned to death after the
Hundred Days, he made a daring escape from the Conciergerie, by exchanging
clothes with his wife, eventually reaching Bavaria.
1741-1801. Poet and physiognomist, he was
born in Zurich.His patriotic conduct
during the French occupation of Switzerland brought about his tragic death. On
the taking of Zürich by the French in 1799, Lavater was shot by an infuriated
grenadier; he died over a year later, after long sufferings borne with great
1713-1793. Ship’s captain for the Compagnie
des Indes. Decorated for actions against the English in the Seven Years’
War, then named Commander of the port of Lorient
for the King, and ennobled by Louis XVI. He retired to Saint-Malo, his birthplace, where
he lived with his grand-daughter Céleste
in a house facing the port of
Dinan, now 10 Rue d’Orléans, which Madame de
Chateaubriand sold in 1804.
1780-1858. A Royalist he was imprisoned at
1810 following the Pichegru conspiracy. He was a grenadier officer in
the Royal Guard after the Restoration and later became the Duc de Bordeaux’s First Valet of the Chamber. He retired to
his native Auvergne at the
end of 1833.
1775-1848. He was from Piedmont,
an Italian (naturalised Frenchman) Napoleonic General, aide-de-camp to
Bessieres at Aspern-Essling who also
fought at Wagram. He was later Secretary
General to the Minister of War during the Hundred Days.
1671-1729.The Scottish economist believed money was only a means of
exchange that did not constitute wealth in itself, and that national wealth
depended on trade. He is said to have been responsible for the wide-spread
adoption of paper money or bills. He became Controller General of Finances in
France and set up the Royal Bank. In August 1717, he bought
the Mississippi Company, to help the French colony in Louisiana. Law’s pioneering note-issuing bank was at first
extremely successful but later collapsed causing an economic crisis in France and across Europe. The speculation
‘bubble’ based on over-valued Lousiana land burst in 1720 when opponents of the
financier attempted en masse to convert their notes into coin. By the
end of 1720 Philippe II dismissed Law, who then fled from France.
BkXXXIX:Chap16:Sec1Law subsequently moved between
London and Venice where he contracted pneumonia and died a poor man in
The Congress of Laibach was
a conference of the allied sovereigns or their representatives, held as part of
the so-called Concert of Europe, which was the decided attempt of the Great
Powers to settle international problems through discussion and collective
weight rather than on the battlefield. The Congress was held in Ljubljana
(Laibach is the German name of the city), in what is now Slovenia but was then
a part of Austrian Empire, from January 26 until May 12, 1821.
1671-1708. French Jesuit and founder (in
1702) of the famous collection of ‘Lettres
édifiantes et curieuses écrites des missions étrangéres par quelques
missionnaires de la Compagnie de Jésus’ one of the most important sources
of information for the history of the Catholic missions. The first eight series
were by Pére le Gobien, the latter ones by Fathers Du Halde, Patouillet,
Geoffroy, and Maréchal. The collection was printed in thirty-six volumes (Paris,
Lenormant, the younger, was Chateaubriand’s publisher in
Paris. (He and his father at various times had
premises at 17 and 42 Rue des Prêtres Saint-Germain-l’Auxerrois, and at
8 Rue de Seine near the Pont des Arts). La Maison
Lenormant and then Lenormant Fils edited and published all Chateaubriand’s
works from Les Martyrs in 1809 to the
Mémoire sur la captivité de Mme la
duchesse de Berry in 1832.
He reprinted Chateaubriand’s report as a pamphlet: Rapport sur l’état de la France, in Paris in 1815.
He printed the Conservateur from the 8th
of October 1818 to the 30th
of March 1820. It
had a stable circulation of about six thousand copies.
His premises mentioned at 8 Rue de la Seine, 30th
July 1830. They lay
on the route from the Palais Royal to the Luxembourg (via the Rue de Rivoli, the
Rue de l’Amiral de Coligny, the Quai du Louvre, the Pont des Arts, the Quai
Malaquais, the Rue de Seine, and the Rue de Tournon).
1668-1747.A French novelist and dramatist, his masterpiece, Gil
Blas de Santillane (1715–35), is a rambling story in the style of Spanish
picaresque romances, though unlike them in conception. It was a major influence in the development of the realistic
novel. Smollett drew heavily on it, especially in Roderick Random. Of Le
Sage’s lesser novels, Le Diable boiteux (1707) is an adaptation of a
Spanish novel, and Le Bachelier de Salamanque (1736, tr. 1737) is an
imitation of Gil Blas. Le Sage made his living by writing light pieces
for the theatres of Paris; his best dramatic work is Turcaret (1709),
a comedy of character, which bitterly satirizes tax farmers and the world of
finance in general.
1617-1655.He was the son of Cathelin Le Sueur, a turner and
sculptor in wood, who placed his son with Vouet, in whose studio he rapidly
distinguished himself. Admitted at an early age into the guild of
master-painters, he left them to take part in establishing the academy of
painting and sculpture, and was one of the first twelve professors of that
BkXVII:Chap5:Sec1His famous series of the
‘Life of St Bruno,’ was executed in the cloister of La Grande-Chartreux. These last have a more personal
character than anything else which Le Sueur produced, and much of their original
beauty survives in spite of injuries and restorations and removal from the wall
She was the Duchesse de
Berry’s maidservant who had pretended to be the
Duchess when the Carlo-Alberto,
carrying the Duchess, was boarded and searched in April 1832 in the port of La
Ciotat, near Marseille. Those
captured on board were tried at Montbrison between February 25th and March 9th 1833. Various
of those acquitted joined Marie de Berry at Ferrara.
1765-1795. A defrocked priest, and amember of the National Convention and the Committee of
General Security, he is best remembered for his activities of 1793-1794, when
he was representative on mission to the departments of the Pas-de-Calais and
the Nord, where he organized the agencies of revolutionary government under the
Law of 14 Frimaire (4 December 1793), and applied its principles with energy
and zeal. During the Thermidorian Reaction, he was imprisoned for several
months, tried for terrorism, and guillotined at Amiens
on 16 October 1795.
1755-1842. French portrait painter; pupil of her father, Louis
Vigée, she was influenced by Greuze. Summoned to Versailles
in 1779 to paint Marie Antoinette, she embarked upon a long and successful
career. She became painter and friend to the queen; two of her best-known
portraits are of Marie Antoinette—one holding a rose and the other with her two
children (Versailles). At the
outbreak of the Revolution, she escaped to Italy
and in the following years visited Vienna,
St. Petersburg, Dresden,
and London, finding acclaim and
prominent sitters everywhere. Her representations show great elegance and
facility of execution. Well known are her portraits of Mme de Staël, C. J. Vernet, and two of herself and
her daughter (Louvre). She is also highly esteemed for her work in pastel.
portrait of Madame de Beaumont. This may
be the portrait of 1788 (in private collection, Paris).
There was an earlier portrait of 1776, when Lebrun also painted Pauline’s
BC. Theconcubine of Aristogeiton who
was a conspirator with his friend Harmodius against the tyrants Hippias and Hipparchus; despite
torture, she did not betray her lover, and the Athenians erected a statue of a
tongueless lion to commemorate her name and courageous silence.
1773-1822.A French cavalry general, at Marengo he won promotion, and
at Austerlitz was made colonel, serving also in the
Prussian campaigns of 1806-1807. In 1808 he was made general of brigade and
created a count of the Empire. Sent with the army into Spain, towards the end of 1808, he was
taken prisoner in the action at Benavente. For over two years he remained a
prisoner in England, living on parole at Cheltenham. In 1811 he escaped, and in the
invasion of Russia in 1812 was again at the head of his
cavalry. In 1813 and 1814 his men distinguished themselves in most of the great
battles, especially La Rothire and Montmirail. He joined Napoleon in the Hundred Days and
was wounded at Waterloo. For his part in these events he was
condemned to death, but he escaped to the United States, and spent the next few years farming
in Louisiana. His frequent appeals to Louis XVIII
eventually obtained his permission to return, but the Albion, the vessel on which he was returning
to France, went down off the coast of Ireland with all on board on the
22nd of May 1822.
1752-1797. A Paris butcher, known as Legendre de Paris, he was
President of the National Convention (October 1794).
he was a great natural leader. Legendre played important parts in the taking of
the Bastille, the massacre of the Champs-du-Mars and the August 10th overthrow
of the monarchy. As a delegate to the National Assembly, he voted for the death
of the King. He survived the Terror by turning against Danton but became an important reactionary
after 9th Thermidor. He forced the closing of the Jacobin Clubs and prosecuted Carrier.
Leghorn (Italian Livorno), in Tuscany, is the capital of the smallest of the provinces
of Italy. The city is situated on marshy ground, and is in
consequence intersected by many canals hence it has been called ‘Little
Venice’. A larger canal puts it in communication with Pisa. It has two ports, the old, or Medici, port, and
the new port constructed in 1854.
philosopher and mathematician, he invented differential and integral calculus
independently of Newton, and proposed an
optimistic metaphysical theory that included the notion that we live in ‘the
best of all possible worlds.’
A city of east-central Germany
south-southwest of Berlin, it was
originally a Slavic settlement called Lipsk, and developed by the early Middle
Ages into a major commercial and cultural centre. The battle of
1813, also called the Battle
of the Nations, was a decisive victory of the Austrian, Russian, and Prussian
forces over Napoleon I. On October 16 the Prussians under General Blücher defeated the French under Auguste de Marmont at Möckern, near Leipzig.
A peace offer by the vastly outnumbered French army was rejected on the
following day while the Allies closed in. On October 18th the French were
driven to the gates of Leipzig, and
most of their Saxon and Württemberg auxiliaries (but not the king of Saxony
himself) passed over to the enemy camp. Leipzig
was stormed on October 19, and Napoleon’s forces began their flight across Germany
and beyond the Rhine. It is estimated that 120,000 men
(on both sides) were killed or wounded in the battle.
The Battle of the Nations or the Battle of Leipzig of 16th-19th October 1813. the largest conflict in Europe before World War I, with over 500,000 troops
involved. It was also the most decisive defeat suffered by Napoleon in the Napoleonic
The area around Lake
Leman (Lake Geneva) dominated by the Alps to the north. The lake is on the Rhone, lying partly in Switzerland and partly in France. Geneva,
Lausanne and Montreux are on the Swiss shore. Evian
is on the south shore.
1771-1840.A Poet and dramatist, he was a
late proponent of classical tragedy over Romanticism, and the originator of
French historical comedy.An accident caused him lifelong
partial paralysis. He made a precocious literary debut, his first tragedy, Méléagre,
being produced at the Comédie-Française before he was 16. His Tartuffe
révolutionnaire (1795) created a succès
de scandale and was quickly suppressed because of its bold political
allusions. The orthodox tragedy Agamemnon (1794) was probably his most
celebrated play. He had no sympathy with the Romantics, and in the Académie
Française, to which he was elected in 1810, he consistently opposed them,
refusing to vote for Victor Hugo’s election. He also wrote a
number of philosophical epic poems. His reputation as a writer declined long
before his death.
1733-1793. A Poet and dramatist, Lemierre revived his earlier play Guillaume Tell in 1786 with
enormous success. After the Revolution he professed great remorse for the
production of a play inculcating revolutionary principles. He published La
Peinture (1769), based on a Latin poem by the abbé de Marsy, and a poem in
six cantos. Les Fastes, ou les usages de lannie (779), an unsatisfactory
imitation of Ovid’s Fasti.
1749-1825. Born in Grenoble, lawyer, journalist (editor of Le
Moniteur from 1795-98), he was Minister of Police in 1797. Senator of the
Empire, he was a senior Freemason and Martinist. He became a Peer of France under
1802-1859. A French archaeologist, he travelled in Egypt, and the Morea. In 1836 he was
appinted Curator of printed books in the Royal Library, and in 1839 was elected
member of the Academy. In 1840 he was made Curator of the Cabinet of Medals.
After a further mission to Greece,
he studied Christian civilisation and became a devout Catholic. In 1848 he was
named Director of the commission of historical monuments, and in 1849 an almost
unanimous vote of the members of the Academy appointed him to the chair of
archaeology in the Collège de France. From that time he devoted himself
entirely to the teaching of Egyptian archaeology.
1804-1894. The wife (1826) of Charles,
and niece and ward of Madame Récamier
from 1811, she inherited Madame Récamier’s papers and was the first edit of her
Mémoires de ma vie.
BkXXIX:Chap16:Sec1BkXXXI:Chap6:Sec1Her husband had travelled with Champollion to Egypt (August 1828-January 1829) and returned to France in February 1829, but was preparing to leave
for the Morea. She intended to join him, and Madame Récamier had considered
going with her.
Lens, Belgium, Battle of
August 20th 1648. a French victory under Louis II de Bourbon, Prince de Condé,
the Great Condé, against the Spanish army under Archduke
Leopold in the Thirty Years War (1618-1648). It was the last major
battle of the war. Lens in Flanders was at that time a
fortified city. The battle was won by superior French cavalry.
d.855. Pope from 847 to 855,
unanimously chosen to succeed Sergius II. When he was elected, on April 10, 847,
he was cardinal of Santi Quattro Coronati, and had been subdeacon of Gregory IV
and archpriest under his predecessor. His pontificate was chiefly distinguished
by his efforts to repair the damage done by the Saracens during the reign of
his predecessor to various churches of the city, especially those of St Peter
and St Paul.
1475-1521. The second son of Lorenzo de’ Medici, he was Pope from 1513.
He is known primarily for his
failure to stem the Protestant Reformation, which began during his reign. He
was a patron of Michelangelo.
Michelangelo’s request, of 1519, reads: ‘I Michelangelo, sculptor, address the
same request to Your Holiness, offering to makea tomb for the divine poet worthy of him, in a location in the city
which would do him honour.’ Giovanni was present at the Battle
of Ravenna in 1512 where he was taken
Chateaubriand has an audience with him in October 1828, and on
of January 1829. There
had been a dispute over new laws limiting the rights of Bishops which Charles X
and the Pope had amicably resolved, the French bishops then submitting to the
The Pope’s 1833 Jubilee celebrated the eighteen hundredth anniversary of the
death of Christ, and in Prgaue as in other cities a traverse of the churches or
stationsof the Cross was prescribed.
A city in Styria, in central Austria, it is located on the Mur river.
painter, engineer, musician, and scientist, he was the most versatile genius of
the Renaissance. As a painter Leonardo is best known for The Last Supper
(c. 1495) and Mona Lisa (c. 1503).
She was a singer whom Milton heard
at Cardinal Barberini’s house in Rome (On his Italian Tour 1638-1639). See Milton’s Latin verses ‘Ad Leonoram Romae canentem’. She also sang (‘una virtuosa, qui avait la voix belle’) at the French Court see the Memoirs
of Madame de Motteville.
The Battle of Lepanto took place on 7 October 1571 when a galley fleet of the Holy League, a
coalition of the Papacy (under Pope Pius V), Spain Venice, the Republic
of Genoa, the Duchy of Savoy, the Knights
of Malta and others, defeated a force of Ottoman galleys. The 5-hour battle was
fought at the northern edge of the Gulf
of Patras, off western Greece.
The League’s forces were ably commanded by Don John (Don Juan) of Austria,
the illegitimate son of Emperor Charles V and halfbrother of King Philip II of Spain.
The Mediterranean islands lie off
Cannes. The largest is Ile Sainte-Marguerite, with a classic coastal
fortress designed by Vauban, where the mysterious Man in the
Iron Mask and
Marshal Bazaine were imprisoned. On Saint-Honorat, the abbey, founded early in
the 5th century by Honoratus following the collapse of Roman power in the north
of Gaul is one of the oldest in France. The abbey adapted the Benedictine rules early-on,
and had many illustrious Bishops and Saints. Honoratus himself was Bishop of
Arles for the last two years of his life (429-430). The abbey was destroyed in
730 by the Saracens.
c1565-c1629. French lawyer, writer, and historian. His curiosity to see
the New World prompted him to follow Poutrincourt to
Port-Royal, in Acadia, in 1606. His proficiency in Christian
doctrine enabled him to instruct the Indians of the neighbourhood of
Port-Royal. His material aid to the settlers was no less efficient: he built a
grist-mill for their wheat, a still to produce tar, and ovens for making
charcoal. After his return to France (1607), he published (1609), under the title
of ‘Histoire de la Nouvelle-France’,
a narrative of his voyage which made him famous.
1766-1793.French soldier and anti-revolutionary. Emigrated
in 1791. Returned to France, and on the 10th of August 1792 took part in the
defence of the Tuileries against the Paris mob. On the outbreak of
the Revolt in the Vendée, he was arrested and imprisoned with all his family,
as one of the promoters of the rising. He was set at liberty by the Royalists,
and became one of their leaders, fighting at Thouars, taking Fontenay and Saumur
(May-June 1793), and, after an unsuccessful attack on Nantes, joining Henri de la
Rochejaquelein. Their peasant troops, opposed to the
republican General F. J. Westermann, sustained various defeats, but finally
gained a victory between Tiffauges and Cholet on the 19th of September 1793.
The struggle was then concentrated around Châtillon, which was time after time
taken and lost by the Republicans. Lescure was killed on the 15th of October
1793 near the château of La Tremblaye between Ernée and Fougères.
1766-1834. He was the uncle of Ferdinand de Lesseps, creator of the
Suez Canal, and went with his father Martin, the
Consul-General, to St Petersburg. Sent on La Pérouse’s expedition he was
landed on the Russian Kamchatka peninsula in 1787 to carry charts and other
materials to Paris. He subsequently had a diplomatic career
serving in Constantinople and Russia, leaving with the retreating French Army,
and finally in Lisbon.
Lethe is the mythological river of the Underworld, whose waters bring
forgetfulness. Ovid, in Metamorphoses Book XI says that its stream flows from the depths of
the House of Sleep, and induces drowsiness with its murmuring. (Hence the
stream of forgetfulness.)
The ItalianLevantinaValley becomes Lake Maggiore, the most westerly of the three large pre-alpine lakes of Europe and the second largest after Lake Garda. Airolo is on the southern flank of the
Saint-Gothard, Bellinzona being the capital of the Ticino Canton likewise at
the end of the LevantinaValley, at the southern end of the Saint Gothard
of the Academy (1816), and Peer de France, under the Restoration, he had been a
representative at the Estates general in 1789 and belonged to the minority of nobles
accepting the principles of the revolution. The events of August 10, 1792, made him an émigré: he was
wounded at Quiberon, and exiled in England,
and only returned to France
in 1799 where he lived in retirement, pursuing his literary works (Maxims and Reflections, 1808). With the
Restoration he became a member of the Chamber of Peers and in this assembly he
dealt in particular with financial matters. He left behind both political and
In Ghent in 1815. The Lévis occupied the
eighteenth-century Château of Noisiel 25km east of Paris in the Park on the banks of the Marne, near to Champs. The Abbey of Chelles nearby
was founded for women of the Royal household in the 6th century by Sainte
Bathilde. It was suppressed in 1790 and the Abbey demolished in 1793.
1794-1863. The son of Gaston-Pierre, he
was aide-de-camp to the Duc d’Angoulême
in 1814, and fought under the Restoration in Spain, the Morea etc, finishing his career with
the rank of colonel. He followed the Royal family into exile during the July
Revolution. He was later a friend of Chambord
and his political counsellor.
1775-1818.English author. In addition to his writing he pursued a
diplomatic career and served for a time in Parliament. He was often called
‘Monk’ Lewis from the title of his extravagant Gothic romance The Monk
(1796), the writing of which was influenced by the tales of Ann
Of his melodramatic plays the most famous is The Castle Spectre (1797).
His ballads, notably Alonzo the Brave and the Fair Imogene, influenced
Sir Walter Scott’s early poetry.
Near Boston, Massachusetts, where the first great battle, of Lexington and Concord, between Americans and the British troops,
intending to destroy American stores, took place on the 19th April 1775. The militiamen were alerted by Paul Revere.
The British destroyed the stores at Concord were but were forced to retreat to Boston.
1747-1827. A French social reformer, before the French Revolution
he established a model farm, two factories, and a trade school on his estate,
and in the Constituent Assembly he urged the necessity of public welfare. A
royalist during the French Revolution, he was forced to flee to England
in 1792. From there he travelled to the United
States where he wrote Voyage dans les
États-Unis d'Amérique (1799). Upon his return to France
(1799), he resumed his philanthropic activities, working especially for health,
educational, and economic reforms.
Stripped of his presidency of various charities in 1823 by Corbière. During his funeral (he died March
27th 1827), there was an altercation between pupils of his foundation school at
Châlons-sur-Marne, and the military, as to who was to carry his coffin, during
which the bier slipped and was damaged, and the insignia of his peerage fell
1803-1869. Born in Florence, he was a mathematician and scientist and a historian of mathematics
and science. He took political refuge in France where he became a professor in the Paris
Science Faculty in 1834. He was appointed to the Academy and became Secretary
to the commission charged with cataloguing the libraries of France. Accused of stealing books and documents
from the libraries, he fled to London. He was defended vigorously by Prosper
Napoleon accepted the Principality of Liechtenstein into the Rhine
Confederation and laid the foundation for the sovereignty of the country. In
the wake of the political reorganization of Europe after
the Congress of Vienna, Liechtenstein became a member of the German
Confederation in 1815. Prince
Johann participated as a colonel in the Turkish Wars, fought in the Napoleonic
Wars, and also intervened significantly in the fate of Austria at the negotiating table: He
was decisively responsible for the achievement of the Peace of Pressburg (1805) and also conducted, far
less successfully, the negotiations on the Peace of Schönbrunn (1809). In 1810, he ended
his military career with the rank of field marshal and subsequently engaged
only in economic activities.
1774-1838. He accompanied
Alexander I of Russia during the Battle of Austerlitz
and at the signing of the Peace of Tilsit. In 1809 he was sent to represent
Russia at the Prussian court and, at the crisis of the Napoleonic Wars in 1812,
was transferred as the Minister Plenipotentiary to the court of St. James’, a
post which he kept for 22 years (1812-1834). Somewhat overshadowed by his more
Dorothea von Lieven, Prince Lieven took part in
the Congress of Vienna and died in Rome when he accompanied the future Alexander
II of Russia on his Grand Tour.
Dorothea Benckendorff, Countess, then Princess von
1785-1857. The daughter of the Governor of Riga, she became Princess
Lieven, in 1826. Wife of the Prince, she was known for her vivacious personality, and was often
seen with her high-profile paramours, such as Metternich, Palmerston and Guizot, whose politics she tried to influence.
A salon she maintained in London was the most fashionable in the city.
Following her husband's retirement, she moved with her salon to Paris, where it
rivaled the circle of Madame Récamier,
and she incurred Chateaubriand’s criticism.
1735-1914. Soldier and writer, came of a princely family of Hainaut, and
was born at Brussels. He became the intimate friend and counsellor of the Emperor
Joseph II. His Brabant estates were overrun by the French in 1792-1793, and his
eldest son Charles Antoine killed in action at La Croix-du-Bois in the Argonne
(September 14, 1792).
met with the empty wagons returning from Vienna, where the Prince had heard of his son’s
death, to the Prince’s estate.
Ligny is a
village in the municipality of Sombreffe (in the province of Namur), where Napoleon
defeated Blücher two days before the battle of Waterloo while Wellington and Marshal
Ney were engaged at Quatre Bras.
The city in northern France, capital of the Nord department, is on the
River Deûle. After a prosperous period under the Dukes of Burgundy in the 14th
century, Lille belonged to Austria and Spain before returning to France in 1668.
Chateaubriand and his brother had forged passports for there in 1792.
The king fled in that direction in 1815. Chateaubriand and his wife reached the
city on the 23rd of March 1815.
The capital of Peru, it lies in the east of the country, near
its Pacific port
of Callao. It was founded by Pizarro in 1535, and
became the main base of Spanish power in Peru. The buildings from the eighteenth century
show a strong French influence, as does Mexico City.
1768-1826. A fellow-pupil of Chateaubriand at Rennes and Dinan,
he joined the Chouan movement in 1793 to avenge his father’s death. Involved in
the Rue Saint-Nicaise conspiracy in December 1799, the aim of which was to
assassinate Napoleon, he escaped to America, and became a priest. He died at Georgetown, 1826.
A talented mulatto, educated in France, Secretary of State and Minister
of Foreign Affairs for the new black Kingdom of Haiti (1811), the titles of ministers having been
borrowed from plantation names, La Marmelade, La Seringue etc.
1764-1820. Daughter of humble Irish immigrants of Calais, she was patronised by the Duchesse de Fitz-James.
She became the mistress of Auguste de Lamoignon
whom she accompanied to England, and later of Benjamin Constant. She was reputed to be the
model for Ellénore in his Adolphe. In
1801 she published an adaptation of a historical novel by Cornelia Knight, Marcus Flaminius (1792), which inspired
1707-1778. Swedish botanist and taxonomist, considered the
founder of the binomial system of nomenclature and the originator of the modern
scientific classification of plants and animals. He studied botany and medicine,
and taught both at Uppsala. In Systema naturae
(1735) he presented his classification of plants, animals, and minerals, and in
Genera plantarum (1737) he explained his system for classifying plants
largely on the basis of the number of stamens and pistils in the flower.
Despite the artificiality of some of his premises, the Linnaean system has remained
the basis of modern taxonomy. Species plantarum (2 vol., 1753) described
plants in terms of genera and species, and the 10th edition (1758) of Systema
naturae applied this system to animals as well, classifying 4,400 species
of animals and 7,700 species of plants. Linnaeus was also known as Karl (or
Carl) Linné (of which Carolus Linnaeus is a Latinized version); when he was
ennobled in 1761 he formally adopted the name Karl von Linné.
c1406-1469. Also called Lippo Lippi, was a Florentine painter. An
orphan he was raised by the Carmelite Friars of the Carmine in Florence. Vasari tells various stories about him:
that sometime between 1431 and 1437 he was captured by Barbary pirates, that he
virtually abducted Lucrezia Buti in 1458 who modelled for him, their son being
the painter Filippino Lippi: and that he may have been poisoned by her
work at Spoleto in the cathedral apse,
shows scenes from the Life of the Virgin including an influential Annunciation.
d.1573. A German physician and financier born in Prague, who lived in Berlin, he was in great favour with the
elector Joachim II, acting as his
financial adviser and as administrator of Jewish affairs. After the sudden
death of Joachim (1571), his son and successor, Johann Georg, accused Lippold
of having poisoned the elector. After torture, he confessed the crime; and,
though he afterward retracted, he was executed January 28th, 1573, the Jews of Berlin
and of the province of Brandenburg
being expelled from the country in the same year.
The capital and largest city of Portugal,
in the western part of the country on the TagusRiver estuary, was an ancient
Iberian settlement, it was held by the Phoenicians and Carthaginians, taken by
the Romans in 205 BC and conquered by the
Moors c AD 714. Re-conquered by the
Portuguese in 1147, it flourished in the 16th century during the heyday of
colonial expansion in Africa and India.
The city was devastated by a major earthquake in 1755.
The Battle of Leuthen (Lissa) December 5, 1757. After defeating the French at the battle of
Rossbach (November 5, 1757) and still smarting from his defeat at Kolin (June
18), Frederick II set out to
Silesia in search of the Austrians and found them arrayed in a 4-mile-long
battle line near the town of Leuthen. Of 65,000 Austrian soldiers engaged,
22,000 were lost (12,000 of them taken prisoner). Leuthen was Frederick’s most brilliant victory and the century's
greatest military achievement. (‘A masterpiece of manoeuvre and resolution.’ - Napoleon.)
Made Under-Secretary of State by Lord
Bute; he won the favour of George III, and
when Bute retired Jenkinson became the leader of the King's Friends in the House of
Commons. From 1778 until the close of Lord North’s ministry in 1782 he was
Secretary of War. From 1786 to 1803 he was President of the Board of Trade and
Chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster, and he was popularly regarded as enjoying
the confidence of the king to a special degree. In 1786 he was created Baron Hawkesbury and ten years later Earl of Liverpool. His eldest son,
Robert, become Prime
Minister of the United Kingdom.
BkXXVII:Chap6:Sec1 Romney’s portrait of him (c1786-1788) is
in the National Portrait Gallery.
Liverpool, Robert Banks Jenkinson, 2nd Earl of
1770-1828. British Tory Prime Minister (1812-1827). Elected as an MP in
1790, he was successively Foreign Secretary, Home Secretary and War Secretary.
He is remembered for his unenlightened response to the unrest that followed the
Napoleonic Wars. In 1817 he suspended habeas corpus, and following the Peterloo
Massacre introduced the repressive Six Acts (1819). He also opposed Catholic Emancipation.
A major port and city on the Mersey estuary, it started life as a port
trading with Ireland, and grew rapidly in the eighteenth century superseding
Bristol as the chief west coast port trading in sugar, tobacco, cotton and
slaves with the Americas. Britain’s first wet dock was built there in 1715.
Titus Livius. 59BC-AD17. The Roman Historian, born in
Padua, settled in Rome c29BC. 35 of the original 142 books of his
monumental history of Rome survive. They cover the early history up to the 4th Century
second Punic war against Hannibal, and the wars against Macedonia.
1770-1838. A Republican officer, he was aide to camp to Napoleon in
1805, then Count of Lobau after the action at Essling in 1809. A prisoner after
Dresden in 1813, he returned to France in May 1814. Banished after Waterloo he returned to France in 1818. A Deputy from 1830 he rallied to
the Orléanists and became a Marshal of France in 1831.
1461-1510.A nobleman, writer and humanist from an old Bohemian family
(later the princes) of Lobkovic, he studied in Bologna and Ferrara (Doctor of Law, 1482) and converted to Catholicism
there. After 1483 he was provost of Vyšehrad in Prague and between 1490 and 1491 travelled to the Holy Land and Egypt.
May 10th 1796. Asmall but dramatic engagement
in Bonaparte’s first Italian campaign, in which he earned the confidence and
loyalty of his men, who nicknamed him ‘The Little Corporal’ in recognition of
his personal courage. It was fought at the LodiBridge, over the AddaRiver, 19 miles (31 km) southeast of
Milan, between 5,000 troops of
Napoleon’s Army of Italy and Sebottendorf's 10,000 troops, the rear guard of Jean-Pierre
Beaulieu’s Austrian army.
Tachnedorus (c.1725–1780), usually known as Chief Logan or John Logan
in historical records, was a Mingo Native American leader in the era before the
American Revolutionary War, whose revenge for the brutal killing of his family
members by white frontiersmen helped spark the conflict known as Dunmore’s War.
Loiret is a département in north-central France named after the Loiret River.
Loiret was one of the original 83 departments created during the French
Revolution on March 4, 1790. It was created from the former province of Orléanais.
Orléans is its capital.
Chateaubriand was named as a Minister of State on 9th July 1815 the day after Louis XVIII’s return to Paris. The Chamber of Deputies having been
dissolved on the 13th, he was designated as the President of the Electoral
College of Loiret on the 26th July. The decree of 17th August 1815 named him a Peer along with 94 others.
Chateaubriand knew of it at Orléans on the 19th.
1727–94, French statesman, and cardinal of the Roman Catholic Church.
He was archbishop of Toulouse (1763–88) and of Sens (1788) and a member of the FrenchAcademy. In the Assembly of the Notables (1787) he
worked against the minister of finance Calonne
and, though King Louis XVI looked with disfavour on his
notorious immorality, he succeeded (1787) Calonne in control of finances.
Thereupon he adopted Calonne’s plans for a direct land tax, for calling of
provincial assemblies to apportion the tax, and for other reforms. The opposition
of the Parlement of Paris to the land tax led him to exile the parlement to Troyes for a time and finally resulted in the
calling of the fateful States-General. Having done nothing to relieve the
financial ills of France, Brienne was forced out of office (Aug., 1788). He was made a
cardinal. Brienne was one of the few French prelates to swear to the civil
constitution of the clergy, promulgated in 1790; for this he was deprived of
the cardinalship. Arrested by the revolutionary government (1793), he died in
The City of London Tavern in Bishopsgate
Street (Within).This imposing old tavern and public meeting-house,
home of many charitable initiatives, used to stand opposite the top of Threadneedle Street. It was rebuilt in 1765, seated
355, and was famous for its excellent meals.
Londonderry, Robert Stewart, Viscount Castlereagh,
1769-1822. British Foreign Secretary 1812-1822. He fought a famous duel
with Canning. He played an important
part in the Congress of Vienna, and
subsequent congresses. Generally unpopular, London rejoiced when he committed suicide (during
Chateaubriand’s embassy) in the belief that he was being blackmailed for
His position regarding Spain.
Ferdinand VII had abolished
the Constitution of March 1812, but an insurrection in 1820 caused its
re-instatement. There were ongoing disturbances, resulting in the left taking
power in 1822, causing concern across Europe.
poet, descended from an established New England
family, after college he spent the next three years in Europe, preparing himself for a professorship of
modern languages at Bowdoin, where he taught from 1829 to 1835. After the death
of his young wife in 1835, Longfellow travelled again to Europe, where he met Frances Appleton, who was to
become his second wife after a long courtship. She was the model for the
heroine of his prose romance, Hyperion (1839). From 1836 to 1854,
Longfellow was professor of modern languages at Harvard, and during these years
he became one of an intellectual triumvirate that included Oliver Wendell
Holmes and James Russell Lowell. He achieved great fame with long narrative
poems such as Evangeline (1847), The Song of Hiawatha (1855), The
Courtship of Miles Standish (1858), and Tales of a Wayside Inn
(1863), which included “Paul Revere’s Ride.” In all of these works he used
unusual, “antique” rhythms to weave myths of the American past. His best-known
shorter poems include “The Village Blacksmith,” “Excelsior,” “The Wreck of the
Hesperus,” “A Psalm of Life,” and “A Cross of Snow.” Longfellow made a poetic
translation of Dante's Divine Comedy (1867), for which he wrote a
sequence of six outstanding sonnets. After his death, he was the first American
whose bust was placed in the Poet's Corner in Westminster Abbey.
1625-1707.The daughter of Henry II of Orléans,
duke of Longueville, she married Henry, Duke of
Nemours in 1657, and when he died in 1659, leaving her childless, the
rest of her life was mainly spent in contesting her inheritance with her
stepmother the Duchesse de Longueville.
the daughter of Henry II de Condé and sister of the Great Condé. A noted beauty, she maintained a
long liaison with the Duc de La Rochefoucauld
and joined him as a leader of the Fronde. A determined enemy of Cardinal Mazarin, she obtained the assistance of her
brother Armand de Bourbon, Prince de Conti, during the first Fronde, and that
of the Vicomte de Turenne and her
brother, the Great Condé, during the second Fronde. She made her peace with the
court in 1653. Much of her remaining life was spent in convents, notably that
of Port-Royal which through her influence was saved from persecution in her lifetime.
BkXIII:Chap1:Sec1Introduced into society in
1635 she soon became one of the stars of the Hôtel Rambouillet, at that time
the centre of all that was learned and witty in France. She fled to Stenay
to meet Turenne in 1650.
A Greek novelist and romancer, and author of Daphnis and Chloe. Very little
is known of his life, and it is assumed that he lived on the isle of Lesbos
during the 2nd century AD, which is the setting
of Daphnis and Chloe a pastoral
love tale which wasthe model for La Sireine by Honoré
d'Urfé, the Diana enamorada of Montemayor, the Aminta of Tasso,
and The Gentle Shepherd of Allan Ramsay. The celebrated Paul et
Virginie is an echo of the same story. Maurice Ravel adapted it for his
ballet, Daphnis et Chloé. Longus
found an incomparable translator in Jacques Amyot, bishop of Auxerre, whose
French version, as revised by Paul Louis Courier, is better known than the
original. It appeared in 1559.
Longwood House on St Helena was the
summer residence of the Lieutenant Governor, John Skelton. Other houses had
been inspected and deemed unsuitable. After being shown Longwood, Napoleon on
returning to Jamestown, noticed a
pleasant house called The Briars and it was agreed he stay there until Longwood
was complete. Coincidentally Wellington had stayed at The Briars when visiting the
1562-1635. A Spanish poet and dramatist, after serving with the Spanish
Armada in 1588, he became secretary to the Duke of Alba settling in Madrid in 1610. He was ordained in 1614, but. His
later life was saddened by the deaths of his wife, children and mistresses. His
numerous plays such as El caballero de
Olmeda (1615-1626) were based on Spanish history.
1215-1270. King 1226-1270. Son of Louis VIII and Blanche of Castile,
born at Poissy, 25 April, 1215; died near Tunis, 25 August, 1270. Louis took the cross in 1244, but did not
leave on the crusade to Egypt (the Seventh Crusade) until 1248. Defeated
and captured (1250) at al-Mansurah, he
was ransomed but remained in the Holy Land
until 1254, helping to strengthen the fortifications of the Christian colonies.
In 1270, Louis undertook the Eighth Crusade, but he died soon after landing in Tunis.
Louis XVI as a descendant of Saint-Louis. The oriflamme, aurea flamma, which
was the standard given to the ancient Kings of France by the Angel Gabriel,
represented a flame on a golden ground. Those who fought under it were supposedly
BkIX:Chap1:Sec2BkX:Chap5:Sec1BkXX:Chap2:Sec2The Order of Saint Louis ("ordre
royal et militaire de Saint-Louis") was a
military Order of Chivalry founded on the 5 April 1696 by Louis XIV. It was
intended as a reward for exceptional officers, and is notable as the first
decoration that non-nobles could be granted. It is roughly the ancestor of the Légion
d'honneur (Legion of Honour), with which it shares the red ribbon (though
the Légion d'honneur is awarded to military and civilians alike).
The Church of the Cordeliers built during his reign. The Sire de Coucy was the guilty party.
BkXV:Chap5:Sec1 The church
of San Luigi dei Francesi, the FrenchNationalChurch
in Rome, is dedicated to him.
Cardinal Giulio de Medici, later Pope Clement
VII, commissioned Jean de Chenevière to build a church for the French
community here in 1518. Building was halted when Rome
was sacked in 1527, and it was finally completed in 1589 by Domenico Fontana.
The church contains frescoes by Caravaggio and Domenichino, and the painter
Claude Lorraine (1600-1682) is buried there.
BkXV:Chap7:Sec3Saint Louis asked to be placed on a bed of ashes as he
1423-1483.King of France
(1461 - 1483). He was the son of Charles
VII of France and Mary of Anjou. He was a member of the Valois Dynasty and
was one of the most successful kings of France
in terms of uniting the country. His 22-year reign was marked by political
machinations, resulting in his being given the nickname of the ‘ubiquitous
BkIX:Chap8:Sec2BkXXIII:Chap12:Sec1Having visited Péronne for an
interview with Charles the Bold, Louis was made (1468) a prisoner and forced to
sign a treaty granting important concessions and compelling him to participate
in suppressing the revolt of Liège, which he had helped
In 1477 he captured Arras and incorporated the Burgundian territories in France by the treaty of Arras of 1482, when the leading citizens were
1462-1515. King 1498-1515. His reign was dominated by the wars his
father Charles VIII had
initiated in Italy, and he suffered major defeats (1511-1513) on several fronts at the
hands of the Holy League.
1601-1643. King 1610-1643. His reign was dominated by the chief
minister Cardinal de Richelieu.
He was the son of the assassinated Henri
IV and Marie de Médicis, who was
regent during his minority. He defeated two Huguenot uprisings in 1622 and 1628
taking their fortress at La Rochelle in 1628.
1638-1715. King 1643-1715. Born at Saint-Germain-en-Laye,
died at Versailles, 1 September, 1715. The son of Louis XIII
and Anne of Austria, he became king at the age of 4, on the death of his
father, 14 May 1643. Anne
of Austria ruled on his behalf until 1651. Until 1661 the government was
largely in the hands of the Italian Cardinal Mazarin, thereafter Louis
controlled the State, built Versailles, and fought
numerous wars, and his long reign left France politically strong
but financially weak, requiring economic and social reform. He was nick-named
Louis-le-Grand (Louis the Great).
1710-1774. King 1715-1774. Known as Louis the Well Beloved (Le
Bien-Aimé) His weak rule discredited France and led to the Revolution of 1789. Almost
all of France’s colonies were lost in the Seven Year’s War (1756-63).
Madame de Coislin was a favourite of his.
She was thought to have been his mistress. The De Nesle descendants said
regarding possibly inherited traits: ‘God forgives, the world forgets, but the
1754-1793. King from 1774, he was guillotined on the 21st
January 1793. The
opposition of his wife, Marie Antoinette,
and the aristocracy thwarted he reforms of Turgot
and Necker. The consequent economic
crisis forced the king to summon the States General of 1789 whose disaffected
Third Estate precipitated the Revolution. The Royal family was confined to the TuileriesPalace from which they attempted to flee in 1791,
reaching Varennes. Louis was deposed
after the people stormed the Tuileries, and was executed in 1793.
Chateaubriand’s presentation in February 1787. Later he was a member of the
commission charged with identifying the royal remains, on exhumation from the
Madeleine cemetery, on 18th January 1815.
His communications with Germany in December 1791. His nicknames of Monsieur
Veto and Monsieur Capet. Louis exercised his powers of royal veto guaranteed by
the Constitution of September 1789 on a number of occasions in 1792, for
example to block the decree concerning refractory priests in May, and this
earned him the first nickname.
The National Assembly became independent of the King’s decrees on 25th
June 1791 after the
Flight to Varennes. The King’s functions were suspended until his acceptance of
the Constitution on the 14th September. Protest in support of the King being
tried had resulted in the ‘Massacre of the Champ de Mars’ on the 17th July.
1755-1824. King 1814-1824. Comte de Provence, Monsieur, the elder brother of Louis XVI. He
was King in name from 1795 following the death in prison of his nephew Louis XVII, and in fact from 1814 following Napoleon’s overthrow. He fled Paris when Napoleon left Elba, and returned ‘in the baggage train of the
Allied armies.’ His attempts to be a moderate monarch were thwarted by the
ultra-royalists. His and Louis XVI’s younger brother was Charles X.
Chateaubriand is writing in 1817 during his reign. After a promising start to
his career, under the Restoration, which linked his fate to that of the ‘chambre introuvable’ of 1815, he was not
long in arousing the mistrust of minister and king. When the administration was
dissolved on the 5th September 1816 he protested energetically in a post-script
to La Monarchie selon la Charte. The
book was seized on publication and the author stripped of his title of Minister
of the State on the 21st September. This chapter was written after the spring
of 1817 when he had been obliged to sell the Vallée-aux-Loups as well as his
Chateaubriand gives a dinner in his honour in London
in 1822, on the feast of Saint Louis, 25th
He died on the 16th of September 1824 at four in the morning. The body was
transported to St Denis on the 23rd where it lay in state for a month before
1747-1793. Father of Louis-Philippe, a
cousin of Louis XVI he nevertheless voted for his death.
He joined the radical Jacobins in 1791. He
was himself executed after his son had joined the Austrian coalition against
Popular support for him in the streets of Paris in July 1789.
1773-1850. King of the French 1830-1848. He supported the Revolution
until 1793 when he deserted to the Austrians living abroad until 1814. He
joined the liberal opposition to the restored Louis XVIII
and came to the throne after the July Revolution ousted Louis’ successor Charles X. Called the Citizen King
by Thiers he relied on middle class
support. He instigated repressions against the many rebellions against his
rule, and abdicated in the revolution of 1848. He retired to England, dying at Claremont, in Surrey.
Charte-Vérité was an ironical allusion to the closing words of Louis-Philippe’s
Constitutional Charter of the July monarchy, in 1830 ‘La Charte sera désormais une vérité: the Charter will be a reality
from now on.’
He initiated the First French Algerian War (1830-148)It took less than three weeks for the French
armed forces to achieve victory in the summer of 1830. French dominion was
formalized on July 5 by a surrender agreement which was forced on the Dey
(local ruler), Hussein. Five days later Hussein and his family went into exile
in Naples. Achieving victory over the forces led by
the man now regarded as the first Algerian national hero, Abd al Kedir, who at
one time controlled two-thirds of the country and whose army reached the gates
of Algiers, however, would require an increase in army numbers to 110,000
before it was generally considered, in 1848, that a degree of effective
military control had been established. Even then, that control was only over
the most northerly part of the country.
1786-1868. King of Bavaria from 1825, he was a patron of the arts and
an ardent philhellene, who wished to make his capital a ‘New Athens’. The
events of 1848 and his liaison with the dancer Lola Montès, forced him to
abdicate in favour of his son.
Louis (Ludwig) Joseph Anton Johann, Archduke of Austria, Prince of Hungary, Prince of Bohemia
and Prince of Tuscany, Archduke
1784-1864.15th son of Emperor Leopold II of Austria, Holy Roman Emperor, King of Hungary and Bohemia, Grand Duke of Tuscany and Maria Luisa de
Bourbon, Infanta of Spain. He joined the Austrian Imperial Army at an early age
and soon gained the rank of General Field Marshal. He retired after the
revolution of 1848 and lived quietly until his death in Vienna
the most gifted Prussian soldier of the post-Frederick era, his promise was
never fulfilled because of his tragically early death in action at the battle
of Saalfeld. He was commanding 8,300 men
against Lannes’ V Corps when the French left-hand column
tried to break out from the Thuringerwald passes early in the Campaign of 1806.
He was killed by Guindet, quartermaster of the 10th French Hussars. As a
prominent leader of the Prussian court war-party, his death was a major blow to
statesman and financier, at the outbreak of the Revolution Abbé Louis (he had
earlier taken orders) already had a reputation as a financial expert. In 1792
he emigrated to England, where he spent his time studying English institutions
and especially the financial system of Pitt. Returning to France on the
establishment of the Consulate he served successively in the ministry of war,
the council of state, and in the finance department in Holland and in Paris.
Made a baron of the empire in 1809 he nevertheless supported the Bourbon restoration
and was minister of finance in 1814-1815. Baron Louis was deputy from 1815 to
1824 and from 1827 to 1832. He resumed the portfolio of finance in 1815, which
he held also in the Decazes ministry
of 1818; he was the first minister of finance under the government of Louis-Philippe, and held the same portfolio in
1831-1832. In 1832 he was made a peer of France.
Assisted at the celebration of the Mass during the Festival of the Federation
in July 1790.
born in Hanover where her father,
Karl of Mecklenburg-Strelitz, was field marshal
of the household brigade. Her mother was Princess Friederike
Caroline Luise of Hesse-Darmstadt. In 1793, at Frankfurt,
Louise met the crown prince of Prussia,
afterwards King Frederick William
III. They were married on December 24 of the same year. After the battles of Eylau and Friedland,
she made a personal appeal to Napoleon
at his headquarters in Tilsit, but without
A town in the Hautes-Pyrénées département in France. It is the
largest Catholic religious pilgrimage location in France. It is situated in the
southwest of the country in the foothills of the Pyrenees mountains.
1641-1691. AFrench statesman and minister during the reign of Louis
XIV, he was associated in office after 1654 with his father Michel Le Tellier
and from 1666 he functioned as war minister officially replacing his father in
1677. The devastation of the Palatinate (1689) by the French army under his orders during
the War of the Grand Alliance earned him condemnation throughout Europe.
1618-1658. The English poet, friend and defender of Charles I, was imprisoned in the
Tower of London by Cromwell.
He was the author of the famous lines ‘Stone walls do not a prison make, nor
iron bars a cage’ from his poem ‘To Althaea: from prison’.
The character, a libertine and rapist, appears in Samuel Richardson’s
novel, Clarissa, or the History of a
Young Lady (1747-48). The longest novel to have been written in the English
language, it is Richardson’s darkest work. Centred round the attempted seduction of a beautiful
young woman, Clarissa is a complex, haunting and psychologically
compelling exploration of desire, duty and the social dynamics of
eighteenth-century culture. Richardson (1689-1761) was admired by Madame de Staël
and Denis Diderot, and inspired two
important epistolary novels, La nouvelle Héloïse (1761) by
Jean-Jacques Rousseau and Les
liaisons dangereuses (1782) by Choderlos de Laclos.
general, he fought with credit throughout the French Revolutionary and
Napoleonic Wars, mainly in the Mediterranean region, and served (1816–21) as Governor
(appointed by the British Government, the island belonging still to the East
India Company) of St.
custodian of Napoleon I. He was criticized severely for his alleged
mistreatment of the French exiles on St. Helena.
His later years were largely spent in controversy on this score, and he wrote a
principal founder and first Superior General of the Society of Jesus, a religious
order of the Catholic Church professing direct service to the Pope in terms of
mission. Members of the order are called Jesuits.
The second largest city in Schleswig-Holstein, in northern Germany, it was
for several centuries the ‘capital’ of the Hanseatic League (‘Queen of the
Hanse’)The old part of the town is an island enclosed by the Trave river. It is
the largest German port on the Baltic.
The thirty metre painting of the Dance of Death by Bernte Notke of 1436: a copy
of the painting made in 1701 was destroyed in the Second World War.A second original by Notke exists in
A town in the Var, in 1598, the Edict of Nantes declared Luc one of the three towns in
where Protestants could freely exercise their religion. Their temple was
destroyed in 1685, after the revocation of the Nantes
poet, born in Córdoba, Spain,
he was a nephew of the philosopher Seneca.
At first in Nero’s favour, he was later
forced to commit suicide when his part in a plot against the emperor was
discovered. Ten books of his epic Bellum Civile (on the civil war
between Caesar and Pompey), erroneously called Pharsalia,
survive. Though the poem is written in a severe style and is often digressive
and extravagant, it has a kind of vigorous beauty and grandeur, which gave
Lucan a high place in the esteem of later writers.
An ancient Etruscan city in Tuscany, northern central Italy, situated on
the river Serchio in a fertile plain near (but not on) the Ligurian Sea. It is
the capital city of the Province of Lucca.
BkXXIX:Chap2:Sec1In 1805 Lucca was taken over by Napoleon,
who made his sister Elisa Bonaparte Baciocchi
‘Queen of Etruria’. After 1815 it became a Bourbon-Parma duchy, then part of Tuscany
in 1847 and finally part of the Italian State.
1808-1864. He was the son of the Duca della Grazia, Prince of Campo
Franco. A young diplomat he made a morganatic marriage with the Duchess de Berry, the widow of the Duke, which was
declared to have taken place on the 14th of December 1831, though the matter is
confused, and may have been contrived to legitimise her pregnancy in 1832.
The town in Central
Switzerland is on LakeLucerne. The Lion of Lucerne, a monument to the
Swiss Guards who fell in Paris in 1792 is a notable feature. It also has a Benedictine monastery and
a 17th century cathedral.
Chateaubriand left Paris on the 8th of August 1832, his wife was to join him at Lucerne some weeks later.
BkXXXV:Chap11:Sec2BkXXXVIII:Chap9:Sec1Chateaubriand writes his journal there 14th-16th August. The bridge
mentioned is the Kappelbrücke, then the Hofbrücke, ornamented with a hundred
and twelve historical and saintly pictures.MountRigi
is to the north of the lake, MountPilatus
to the south-west.The Bay of
is the easterly basin of the lake.
120-d. later than 180.A
Roman rhetorician and satirist, he wrote in Greek. The first printed edition of
a selection of his works was issued at Florence
in 1499. His best known works are The True History (a romance, with a
trip to the moon), and Dialogues of the Gods and Dialogues of the
The story goes that in 1458, Filippo Lippi was
commissioned to paint a picture for the convent chapel of S. Margherita of
Prato, and there saw Lucrezia Buti, the beautiful daughter of a Florentine,
Francesco Buti; she was either a novice or a young lady placed under the nuns’
guardianship. Lippi asked that she might be permitted to sit for the figure of
the Madonna (or it might rather appear of S. Margherita); he made love to her,
abducted her, and kept her despite the utmost efforts of the nuns to reclaim
her. A later myth suggests her relatives poinsoned him in a vendetta. Their son
was the painter Filippino Lippi.
c98-55BC Titus Lucretius
Carus, the Roman philosopher and poet, whose single extant work, De rerum Natura, consists of six books
expounding the philosophy of Epicurus,
including the atomic theory of phenomena and the materiality and mortality of
Chateaubriand quotes from the first verse of the work, the celebrated
invocation to Venus: ‘Aeneadum genitrix, hominum divumque voluptas: Mother of Aeneas,
delight of men and of gods’
1480-1519.She was the illegitimate daughter of Rodrigo
Borgia, the powerful Renaissance
Valencian, who later became Pope Alexander VI and Vannozza dei Cattanei. Her
brother was the notorious despot Cesare Borgia. The subject of many tales
portraying her as wicked, possibly all apocryphal.
1786-1868.King of Bavaria from 1825 until the 1848
revolutions in the German states, he supported the Greek fight for
independence: His second son Otto was elected king of Greece in 1832. After the July Revolution in
France 1830, his previous liberal policy became more and more repressive.
Ludwig was tainted by scandal associated with one of his mistresses, Lola
Montez and he abdicated on March 20, 1848 in favour of his son, Maximilian.
A lake in the south-east of Switzerland, at the border between Switzerland
and Italy, it is named after the city of Lugano, and situated between Lago
Maggiore and Lago di Como.
Chateaubriand’s destination in August 1832. The TremolaValley road, built between 1827 and
1830 on the southern flank of the GotthardPass, rises in hair-raising
serpentines 1000 meters between the ridge of the Pass and Airolo.
d.c 84. The Evangelist isby tradition the author of both the Gospel
of Luke and the Acts of the Apostles, the third and fifth books of
the New Testament. In Catholicism, he is patron saint of painters, physicians
The Treaty of Lunéville (in
Lorraine) was signed on February 9 1801 between the French Republic and
the Holy Roman Empire by Joseph
Bonaparte and Louis, Count Cobentzel,
respectively. The treaty marked the end of the Second Coalition; Britain was
the sole nation still at war with France.
1483-1546. The German Protestant reformer was
the founder of Lutheranism. An Augustinian monk and priest, he was professor of
theology at Wittenberg in 1511.
He attacked the corrupt Papacy and believed in salvation by faith alone, and
that human will was incapable of following the good. He appeared before Charles
V’s imperial diet at Worms but
refused to recant and was outlawed.He
married a former nun and opposed the Peasant’s Revolt (1524-1525). With the
Augsburg Confession (1530) a separate Protestant church emerged.
The town lies in the district of Weißenfels, in Saxony-Anhalt, Germany. It
is situated approximately 18 km southwest of Leipzig. The first major engagement of the War
of the Sixth Coalition during the Napoleonic Wars was fought there. France’s
hastily assembled army consisted of just over 200,000 largely inexperienced
recruits and was severely short of horses. Napoleon crossed the Rhine
into Germany to
link up with remnants of his old Grand Army, and quickly defeat this new
alliance before it became too strong. On May
2, 1813, the Russian commander, Prince Peter Wittgenstein, attacked
Napoleon’s advanced column near Lützen, in an attempt to undo Napoleon’s
capture of Leipzig. After a day of
heavy fighting, the combined Prussian and Russian force retreated, but without
cavalry the French were unable to follow their defeated enemy.
A city in Upper Egypt
and the capital of the Al Uqsur governorate, beside the Nile,
it is the site of the ancient Egyptian city of Thebes.
The ruins of the temple complexes at Karnak and
stand within the modern city.
of the obelisk in the Place de la Concorde in Paris.
The obelisk with inscriptions from the reigns of the Pharaohs Ramses II and III
once graced the entrance to the Temple
of Amon at Luxor.
?700-630BC.The legendary lawgiver of Sparta, he established the military-oriented
reformation of Spartan society in accordance with the Oracle of Apollo at Delphi. Later he is supposed to have
returned to Delphi and on being told that his reforms were good, chose not to
return but to end his life there and starved himself to death .
The Jardin des Plantes was
established in 1792 by Jean Emmanual Gilbert a Doctor of Botany, above the site
of the Gallo-Roman Amphitheatre des Trois
Gaules, on the hill of Croix-Rousse in the north of the City. (The Three
Gauls were Lugdunenis, Belgica, and Aquitania, Lyons being the Roman capital of the three regions
of Gaul.) The Abbaye
was an ancient pre-Revolutionary foundation.