1734-1816. Superior of the Saint-Sulpice Seminary in Paris, he was sent to America to found a new seminary at Baltimore and create a new Catholic diocese.
BkXIV:Chap5:Sec1 Chateaubriand sailed with his party to America in April 1791.
The Yellow (or Green) Dwarf was a satirical journal written by members
of Queen Hortense’s salon
(Etienne, Jouy etc) which contained epigrams on Louis XVIII.
26:Sec1 The pun on duck feathers, plumes de cane, was a reference to Cannes,
and the Golfe de Juan where Napoleon would land.
The town in southern Belgium, strategically positioned at the confluence
of the Rivers Sambre and Meuse. It
was besieged and captured many times.
Chateaubriand passed through in 1792.
Mid 13th Century-1300. He was a monk of Saint-Denis, archivist from 1285, who
produced a chronicle of his times (c1292).
The major port in western France, it is the capital of the Loire-Atlantique
Département on the Loire estuary.
seat of the royal court of Brittany.
BkV:Chap2:Sec 2 BkXIX:Chap10:Sec1 At
the height of the Terror in 1793 two thousand captives at
Nantes were towed out in barges into the Loire and drowned, some stripped naked and bound
in couples. These were the republican
marriages Chateaubriand mentions.
Its young men summoned to agitate at the
Brittany States in Rennes
The Edict of Nantes in 1598 guaranteed French Protestants, the Huguenots,
religious liberty. Proclaimed by Henri
IV, it established religious tolerance, freedom of worship and limited
civil equality. Henri hoped to prevent further wars of religion in
France. it was revoked in 1685 by Louis XIV prompting a Huguenot diaspora and draining France of talent and skill.
Fouché named as head of the college
there in 1789.
Chateaubriand there in 1802.
Chateaubriand’s cousin Moreau
retired there in 1808, and died there in 1812.
Berryer there in June 1832. He was tried
for his involvement with the Duchesse de Berry’s plot.
On the eastern coast of the Peloponnese,
south of Argos, the city served as
the Greek seat of government from 1829 to 1834. It was probably the naval
station for Argos in Mycenaean
times and according to legend, was founded by Nafplios, son of Poseidon, and
his son Palamedes, who is said to have invented dice, chess, and other board
games to amuse his fellow Greeks during the Trojan War. In 1388, Nafplion was
taken by the Venetians, who called it Napoli de Romanie and fortified it so
securely that it resisted repeated Turkish attacks until finally handed over to
the Sultan in a peace treaty in 1540. Except for a brief period of recovery by
the Venetians (1688-1715) Nafplion remained under Turkish domination until won
during the War of Independence.
Canaris’ letter dated from there.
The city in southern Italy, the capital of Campania, situated on volcanic slopes overlooking the
Bay of Naples. Founded by Greek colonists about 600BC, it
fell under Roman rule in 326BC. In 1139 it became part of the Norman
Kingdom of Sicily. After the Revolt of the Sicilian Vespers in 1282, it became
the independent Kingdom
of Naples, until it fell to Garibaldi in 1860, and was
united with the rest of Italy.
Mentioned as an exotic place.
Chateaubriand arrived there 2nd January 1804. The Elysian Fields are the Campi Flegrei, the Fields of Fire, to
the west of Naples.
On 23 January 1799
the French-supported Parthenopaean
Republic was proclaimed: the name Parthenope
refers to an ancient Greek colony on the site of the future city of Naples.
It lasted until June 1799 when the French withdrew.
The Kingdom of Naples was a bargaining chip at the Congress of Vienna.
There had been a Carbonari insurrection there in July 1820. There was a
Congress at Laybach to resolve the crisis which Chateaubriand asked in vain to
attend. It was left to Austria (directed by Metternich) to occupy Naples, King Ferdinand I (1759-1825) of the Two
Sicilies, who had fled, returning in May 1821.
Madame Récamier there in 1814.
Naples was called Parthenope from the Siren who
threw herself into the sea out of love for Ulysses
and was cast up in the bay of
Mentioned as a major Italian port.
Its lazzaroni, the homeless
idlers who lived by chance work or begging – so called from the
of St. Lazarus, which served as
King of, see Joachim Murat
d. c300. Neopolus of Alexandria, martyred
during the reign of Diocletian.
His feast is celebrated on the 15th of August.
I, Emperor of France
1769-1821. First Consul of France 1799-1804. Emperor of the French 1804-1815. Born
Napoleon Bonaparte in Corsica, he became an artillery officer and rose to
prominence in 1795 while defending the Convention in Paris. After campaigning in Italy (1796-97) and Egypt (1798-99) he became First Consul in the coup
d’état of 18th Brumaire (9-10th November 1799). After his brilliant European campaigns
which greatly expanded the French Empire, and his ultimately disastrous Russian
Campaign of 1812, Europe rose up against him and he was defeated at Leipzig and exiled to Elba. In 1815 he escaped and after the Hundred
Days was defeated decisively at Waterloo,
spending the remainder of his life confined to the island of St Helena.
Chateaubriand mentions meeting him.
Chateaubriand’s ambivalence towards Napoleon. He calls him Bonaparte rather
had been exiled to St Helena in 1815.
Viewed by Chateaubriand as an oppressor of freedoms.
The representative of despotism.
His rise from obscurity paralleled Chateaubriand’s.
Chateaubriand compares Bonaparte and Washington.
Napoleon had died at St
Helena on the 5th
Washington in 1799.
farewell to his troops.
See Mémorial de Sainte-Hélène XI,
The master of Europe.
Anticipation of his crowning.
His absurd court action against Peltier.
BkXIV:Chap4:Sec1 BkXV:Chap7:Sec1 He
officially became First Consul in February 1800 after the popular vote ratified
the new Constitution.
Popular songs about him in May 1800.
transformation from Republic to Empire.
The police activity under Napoleon.
Chateaubriand introduced to his sister Élisa
and brother Lucien. Napoleon was
officially First Consul from February 1800.
His re-institution of religion,
His control and censorship of the arts.
His patronage of scientists.
Alluded too as the representative of the Revolution.
Chateaubriand went to see him on the 18th or 19th March 1804, on the eve of
leaving for Valais.
impact on his career of the execution of the Duc d’Enghien.
His involvement in the execution of the Duc d’Enghien.
Moral errors the cause of his downfall. The reference to the Corsican monster is to the island where
Bonaparte was born, not far from Sicily where the monster Polyphemus devoured
Odysseus’ men in Homer’s Odyssey.
BkXVIII:Chap5:Sec1 After Friedland and the Treaty of Tilsit,
by August 1807 Napoleon was at the height of his powers.
His comment on Chateaubriand’s portrait.
The episode of the Florentine lion refers to the one which escaped from the
Grand Duke of Tuscany’s menagerie, which desisted from tearing apart a child on
seeing its mother’s tears. Nicolas Monsiau (1754-1837) entered a painting
depicting the scene in the Salon of 1801.
He inaugurated the Decennial Prize in 1804 to mark the coup of the 18th
Brumaire (9th November 1799), every ten years. Chateaubriand (Le Génie) was recommended for it in 1810
(the year fixed for the first award), but the work was rejected as inadequately
structured though showing good style, interesting detail and beauties of the
His various titles and domains, and his bargaining for the hand of Marie-Louise of
allusion to Alexander and Caesar as peers.
Birth and childhood.
reference to Las Cases’ Mémorial. Napoleon’s early love affair.
His poor spelling.
Saint Florent harbour at the foot of Cap Corse, Corsica, is where the Genoese built a citadel in
1440. The defensive tower at Martella, Corsica, became the prototype for the hundred or so
circular Martello towers built by the British, between 1805 and1812, for
coastal defence of the southern English shoreline.
Napoleon witnessed the march to the Tuileries of 20th June 1792.
The siege of Toulon and Napoleon’s swift
rise to the rank of brigadier-general.
physical change in his appearance over time.
Bonaparte defended the Convention, that is the Revolution, on the 13th
Vendémiaire Year IV (5th October 1795), using cannon brought by Murat, from Sablons, 200 or so being
killed on each side, particularly around the Saint-Roch church, on Rue Neuve
The plot to kill Napoleon of 10th October 1800 was discovered. On 19 Nivôse (January
9) the four conspirateurs des poignards –
the Jacobins Ceracchi (the sculptor), Aréna (a Corsican), Topino-Lebrun (the
painter) and Demerville (Barère’s former secretary) – were found guilty of
plotting to murder the First Consul and condemned to death. The plot of the Rue Saint-Nicaise, also
known as the Machine infernale, was an assassination attempt on the life of
Napoleon, in Paris on 24 December 1800. The machine infernale attempt on Napoleon’s life
was planned by seven royalist Breton Chouans:
Pierre Robinault de Saint-Régeant (1768-1801) a supporter of Louis XVIII,
Saint-Régeant had tried to stir a revolt in western France the previous year,
and had publicly torn up Napoleon’s offer of amnesty to the vendéens; Pierre
Picot de Limoëlan (1768-1826) was the
gentleman son of a guillotined royalist nobleman; Georges Cadoudal (1771-1804) was the great
chouannerie leader; Jean-Baptiste Coster (1771-1804): one of Cadoudal’s ablest
lieutenants, was known as Saint-Victor. The other three plotters were the
noblemen Joyaux d’Assas, Jérôme Pétion de Villeneuve, and La
decree reorganising the Comédie-Francaise was signed on the 15th of October 1812 not long after the fire
which ravaged the city. The parallel with Nero ‘fiddling
while Rome burned’ is suggested.
He had berated the Directors in 1799 regarding their betrayal of the 1797
Constitution (18th Fructidor).
The four regiments of Napoleon’s Gardes
d’honneur, were raised in 1813 during the frantic rebuilding of the French
cavalry after the huge losses in Russia. Recruited from the leading social classes,
uniformed and equipped at their own expense, and accompanied by servants to
take care of such unpleasant chores as stable duty, these men were promised
commissions as officers after a year’s service in the ranks. Though
spectacularly unready for combat upon their arrival with the army, the Guards
of Honour served alongside the élite cavalry of the Imperial Guard in the
campaigns of Saxony and France, 1813-14, and distinguished themselves in battle
at Hanau and
The order of the day mentioned (5th
April 1814) was published by Baron Fain
(Manuscrit de 1814).
Napoleon created the Legion of Honour
in 1802, the medal being given for outstanding service to France regardless of the nationality or status of
the recipient. A school for the daughters of members of the Legion of Honour
was founded at the Abbey buildings of Saint-Denis
The news of Napoleon’s death on the 5th of May 1821 at St Helena
was not widely known in Europe until the beginning of July.
Chateaubriand compares him to the Exterminating Angel who executes vengeance in
the name of the Deity.
His early patronage of Chateaubriand.
His irritation at Madame Récamier’s
Madame de Staël writes to him in 1810.
His death marking the end of an era.
BkXXX:Chap6:Sec2 His inability to re-invigorate Italy.
The banishment of the Imperial family.
His military successes in Europe.
Chateaubriand’s respect for his greatness.
His effect on the revolutionary trend.
His nephew Napoleon III.
Napoleon convened a representative assembly of eleven delegates of the Jewish
communities in Paris in August 1806. The Grand Sanhedrin proper occurred February-April
1897. The Venetian delegates were Foa Ventura, Jacob Cracovia and the banker
His remains returned to France
in 1840, were placed in St Jerome’s
chapel in the Invalides, and in 1861 re-sited beneath the dome.
Chateaubriand here adopts a date for Napoleon’s birth of 15th August 1768, compared with the official
date of 15th August 1769
and the alternative date of the 5th
February 1768 which he suggests in Book XIX.
II, Emperor of the French, King of
Rome, Prince of Parma, Duke of Reichstadt
1811-1832. The son of Napoleon I and Marie Louise, he was known as the King of Rome (1811–14), as
the prince of Parma (1814–18), and
after that as the Duke of Reichstadt. Napoleon’s abdication in 1815 was in favour
of his son, so that he was known to the Bonapartists as Napoleon II, although
he never ruled. After 1815 he was a virtual prisoner in Austria,
where he died of tuberculosis. In 1940 his remains were transferred from
to the dome of the Invalides in Paris,
where he now rests beside his father. The pitiful life of the ‘Eaglet’ is the
subject of Edmond Rostand’s drama L’Aiglon.
His birth celebrated. He was born on March 20th 1811.
portrait sent to Napoleon in Russia
Left Paris with his mother in 1814.
Passed through Blois on his way to Vienna
Talleyrand favoured his
succession in 1814.
26:Sec1 He and his mother were expected to visit Napoleon, on Elba but he was taken with her to Vienna.
Discussions regarding him at the Congress of Vienna.
He remained with his mother in Vienna despite Napoleon’s return from Elba.
Napoleon wished to abdicate in his favour and declare him Emperor after Waterloo.
Napoleon ordered on his death-bed that he should sent his post-mortem report.
The King of Rome’s cradle was created by Pierre-Paul Prudhon (1758-1813) the
painter, Henri-Victor Roguier (1758-after 1830), Jean-Baptiste-Claude Odiot
(1763-1850) and Pierre-Philippe Thomire (1751-1843) in Paris
in 1811. The golden cradle was a gift from the city of Paris
to the Empress. The decorative motifs glorify Napoleon. More than 280 kilograms
of precious materials were used in the design. The piece is now in the
Chateaubriand suggested he should be made Captain of the King’s Guards.
He had died in Vienna on the 22nd of July 1832. The news had reached Paris on the 25th just before Chateaubriand’s
departure for Switzerland.
III, Charles-Louis-Napoléon Bonaparte
1808-1873. Known as Louis-Napoléon, he was
President of France from 1849 to 1852, and then Emperor
of the French under the name Napoléon
III from 1852 to 1870. A nephew of Napoleon
I, he led the Bonapartist opposition to Louis
Philippe and became president of the Second
Republic (1848). After proclaiming
himself emperor (1852), he instituted reforms and rebuilt Paris.
His successful imperialist ventures were overshadowed by a failed campaign in Mexico
(1861–1867) and the Franco-Prussian War (1870–1871), which resulted in his
In Constance with his mother in September 1832.
Chateaubriand writes to him in October 1832.
A market town in the Aude in south-east
France, it was an important Roman settlement. Its
port silted up in the 14th century.
Visited by Chateaubriand in 1802. The Canal des Deux Mers is the combination of
the Canal du Midi and the Canal Latéral à la Garonne. Begun in 1666 it was created by Pierre-Paul
Riquet, the Languedoc salt-tax farmer, to connect the Mediterranean to the Atlantic.
Louis-Marie-Jacques Amalric, Comte de
1755-1813. A French soldier and diplomat, he was
the son of one of the ladies-in-waiting to Elizabeth, duchess of
Parma, and his father was either a Spanish
nobleman or as has been alleged Louis XV
himself. He was brought up at Versailles with the Princesses of France, and was made
a colonel at the age of twenty-five. He became maréchal de camp in 1791, and,
through the influence of Madame de Staël,
was appointed minister of war. But he showed incapacity in this post, gave in
his resignation, and joined the Army of the North, Incurring suspicion as a
Feuillant and also by his policy at the war office, he emigrated after the 10th
of August 1792, visited England, Switzerland and Germany, and returned to
France in 1801. In 1809 he re-entered the army as general of division, and was
subsequently minister plenipotentiary at Munich and aide de camp to Napoleon.
In 1813 he was appointed French ambassador at Vienna, where he was engaged in an unequal
diplomatic duel with Metternich during
the fateful months that witnessed the defection of Austria from the cause of Napoleon to that of the
Allies. He died at Torgau, in Saxony.
An associate of Lauzun.
Sent to Alexander’s headquarters
Raymond-Jacques-Marie, Duc de
1771-1855. A Peer, and Ambassador to
BkXLI:Chap6:Sec1 At Bustehrad,
Prague, 27th of September 1833.
Anne-Angélique-Marie-Émilie de Sérent, Duchesse
1770-1856. She married Raymond in 1788.
Bustehrad, Prague, 27th of
She was a Russian society lady, known to Alexander I.
A young Russian officer.
Brought before Napoleon at Borowsk.
An ancient hilltown and comune of Umbria in central Italy, at altitude
787 ft it overhangs a narrow gorge of the Nera River in the province of
Chateaubriand there in 1828.
Work by Chateaubriand. An American novel which started life entitled René et Céluta, and was offered to a
Paris publisher in 1798. It was revised with Fontanes help. The Natchez Indians were among the last
native-American groups to inhabit the area now known as south-western
Their culture began around A.D. 700 and lasted until the 1730s when the tribe was dispersed in a war
with the French. Their language, related to the Muskogean
language family, indicates that the Natchez Indians probably developed from
earlier cultures in the Lower Mississippi River Valley.
BkXI:Chap3:Sec1 BkXI:Chap5:Sec1 Written
An incident from it set on Corvo. (Les Natchez, Book VII)
The Natchez Indians.
approved of the work.
separated out of the manuscript in 1800.
Mentioned as an early work. Its four thousand pages fastened together with
A French opposition newspaper issued from
3rd January 1830.
BkXXXII:Chap1:Sec1 The editors of the Press met at its offices
of July 1830.
BkXXXII:Chap2:Sec1 Its type-presses were under threat on
the 27th of July 1830.
BkXXXII:Chap16:Sec1 A meeting at its offices on
the 31st of July 1830.
BkXXXIV:Chap9:Sec1 Produced by
BkXXXVII:Chap12:Sec1 Available in
Prague in May 1833.
BkXLII:Chap4:Sec1 An article in the National on 4th May 1834 giving sections of the Memoirs entitled the Future
of the World, reproduced in the Revue
des Deux-Mondes on 15th April.
The naval Battle of Navarino
was fought on 20 October 1827, during the Greek War of Independence (1821–29)
in Navarino Bay, western Greece. A combined Ottoman and Egyptian armada was
destroyed by a combined British, French and Russian naval force, at the port of
Navarino. It is notable for being the final large-scale fleet action in history
between sailing ships.
Marie-Louise-Charlotte Poullot, Madame de
She was Mother Superior of the Augustines de la Congrégation Notre-Dame
Chateaubriand confuses Lucile’s
residences at the end of her life, in his text. The translation corrects the
errors. Madame de Navarre was an instructress at the convent in 1804.
He was secretary and later son-in-law to
Gisquet, the Prefect of Police.
BkXXXV:Chap5:Sec1 He visits Chateaubriand in his cell in June
is a Lower Galilee city and a centre of Christian
pilgrimage. A row of churches has been erected over the Grotto of the
Annunciation since the 4th century AD.
The latest basilica incorporates remains of a church built by Crusaders.
BkXIX:Chap16:Sec2 Junot took Nazareth
on the 8th April 1799.
Jesus worked as a carpenter in
Nazareth according to Matthew XIII:55.
A young Irish beauty, in
London, in 1798.
King of Babylonia
(605–562) who captured (597) and destroyed (586)
and carried the Israelites into captivity in Babylonia.
BkXIX:Chap16:Sec2 He supposedly died of madness due to a
gnat entering his brain via the nostril. The same death is attributed to Nimrod
1732-1804. A banker, he was Finance Minister under Louis XVI. Father of Madame de Staël. He advocated the formation of the
States-General to effect financial reform. His brief dismissal by Louis XVI
(1789) precipitated the storming of the Bastille.
Ginguené was appointed to a
minor position in his office.
His dismissal 11th July 1789.
Popular support for him in the streets of
Paris in July 1789.
Returned to Paris in July 1789 after the fall of the Bastille.
Re-appointed, as Comptroller General, 25th July 1789.
His house a fashionable meeting place. Involved in saving the life of Besenval.
Resigned and left Paris in September 1790.
letter regarding Madame de Beaumont’s
The young Napoleon wrote to him.
His and his wife’s crypt at Coppet.
Suzanne Curchod, Madame
1739-1794. The wife of Jacques Necker (1764). A
mother of Mme de Staël, her salon was
frequented by celebrated Frenchmen and foreign visitors. A hospital that she
founded c.1776 is still in existence. Her writings on literary and moral
subjects include Des inhumations précipitées (1790), Réflexions sur
le divorce (1794), and miscellaneous collections published as Mélanges
in 1798 and 1801.
de Saussure, Albertine-Adrienne
1766-1841. Daughter of a naturalist, her husband was a cousin of Madame
de Staël. He was a botanist and the
nephew and namesake of Jacques Necker. A Swiss
woman of letters, she wrote an influential work on the Education of Women
The dinner mentioned was on the 6th of June 1831, and included Bonstetten and Sismondi.
Adam Adalbert Adrian, Count von
1775-1829. He married Marie-Louise
of Austria in 1821.
He died in 1829.
1758-1805. The British Admiral, who in 1798 destroyed French naval
power in the Mediterranean at the Battle of the Nile. After Copenhagen in 1801 he was created a Viscount. He was
mortally wounded at Trafalgar in 1805, when most of the French fleet was
destroyed or captured.
Chateaubriand mentions meeting him.
Nelson defeated the French at the Battle of the Nile in Aboukir Bay on the 1st of August 1798. In June 1799 a counterrevolution re-established
Bourbon rule in Naples, and in his
capacity of commander in chief of the Neapolitan navy, Nelson was responsible
for the execution of several Neapolitan officers for serving the French.
A courtesan. Possibly she may be identified with
of Nemea) whom Aristophon painted holding
Alcibiades in her arms.
Roman god of the sea, he was the brother of Pluto and Jupiter.
The trident was his emblem.
Synonymous with the sea.
The Greek equivalent Poseidon was also god of horses.
Prayers to the god.
Pillars of Hercules mark the junction of
two seas, the Atlantic and the Mediterranean.
Aphrodite-Cybele born from the sea.
A sea-god in Greek Mythology, he was the husband of
Doris, and, by her, the father of the fifty
Nereids, the mermaids attendant on Thetis.
The Nereids as nymphs of the sea.
The gondoliers as sons of Nereus.
Nero, Claudius Caesar Augustus
Germanicus, born Lucius Domitius Ahenobarbus, Roman Emperor
37-68AD. Emperor 54-68. Noted for his cruel conduct,
he murdered his mother Agrippina the
Younger, and his wife Octavia. In 68 the
mutiny of his palace guard and revolts in
Gaul, Spain and Africa forced him to flee Rome and led to his suicide.
He sent a letter to the Senate, following his murder of his mother Agrippina, the drift of which was that
Agerinus, one of Agrippina’s confidential freedmen, had been detected with an
assassin’s dagger, and that in the consciousness of having planned the crime
she had paid its penalty. Tacitus claims
the letter was drafted by Seneca, see
Tacitus Annales XIV.11.3
An example of abuse of power.
BkXIX:Chap9:Sec3 Napoleon compared to him.
On the night of July 18, AD64 the
Great Fire of Rome erupted. The
fire started in densely populated areas and burned for a week. It was said that
Nero viewed the fire from the tower
of Maecenas, and exulting, as Nero
said, ‘at the beauty of the flames,’ he sang the whole time the ‘Sack of Ilium’
in his regular stage costume. Rumours circulated that Nero had played his lyre
and sang, on top of Quirinal Hill, while the city burned. (Tacitus, Ann.
xv; Suetonius, Nero xxxvii; Dio Cassius, R.H. lxii.)
Declared a public enemy (persona non
grata) by the Senate in June 68. He then committed suicide, Galba having
been recognised as Emperor and welcomed to the city.
BkXXIX:Chap2:Sec3 BkXXIX:Chap16:Sec1 The tomb of Publius Viribus Marianus
mistakenly called Nero’s Tomb is on the right bank of the Tiber,
not far from the Via Flaminia, about seven kilometres north of the Piazza del
Poppaea was his mistress and second wife.
c1030-1096. A French crusader who died in
Palestine during the First Crusade.
Jean II de, Comte de Soissons
c1224-1300. Called Le Bon et Le Bègue. Regent of
France during Saint Louis’ last crusade.
Louis-Joseph Augustin de Mailly-Rubempré, Prince d’Orange et de Neufchâtel, Marquis
1744-1810. Colonel of Grenadiers 1767. Master of Horse to Madame La
Dauphine. Field Marshal 1781. Emigrated 1792.
Returned to France 1801.
III de, Comte de Soissons
1150-1235. Constable of France, he was knighted by Louis IX.
Karl Robert, Count
diplomat he was a leading European conservative statesman of the Holy Alliance.
His autobiography was published posthumously in 1866.
centaur, the son of Ixion, he attempted to steal Hercules’ bride Deianira, and
was killed by Hercules. Dying he soaked his shirt in blood mixed with the Hydra’s
poison, from Hercules’s arrow that had killed him, and gave it to Deianira,
telling her it would revive a dying love. Hercules subsequently donned it, and
died in agony.
an der Donau
Neuburg on the Danube is the capital of the Neuburg-Schrobenhausen district
in the state of Bavaria in Germany.
Chateaubriand there in 1833.
The German Neuenberg, in western
Switzerland, is a city on
Lake Neuchâtel. Traditional industries include watch-making
and chocolate production.
Hometown of the fictitious Lassagne.
Chateaubriand considers retiring there in 1824.
The Chateaubriands there in 1824. Chateaubriand arrived on the 8th of October
and was back in Paris by the 23rd for the King’s funeral.
Mentioned, see Berthier.
Prince de, see Berthier
Stephen von, Baron
A German adventurer and for a short time
nominal king of Corsica, he served first in the French army and then in that of
Sweden. He then went to Spain, where he was made colonel and married one of the
queen’s ladies-in-waiting. Deserting his wife soon afterwards he repaired to
France and became mixed up in Law’s financial affairs; then he wandered about Portugal,
the Netherlands and Italy, and at Genoa made the acquaintance of some Corsican
prisoners and exiles, whom he persuaded that he could free their country from
Genoese tyranny if they made him king of the island. With their help and that
of the bey of Tunis he landed in Corsica in March 1736, where the islanders,
believing his statement that he had the support of several of the great powers,
proclaimed him king. He assumed the title of Theodore I, issued edicts,
instituted an order of knighthood, and waged war on the Genoese, at first with
some success. But he was eventually defeated, and civil broils soon broke out
in the island; the Genoese having put a price on his head and published an
account of his antecedents, he left Corsica in November 1736, ostensibly to
seek foreign assistance. After trying in vain to induce the grand duke of Tuscany
to recognize him, he started off on his wanderings once more until he was
arrested for debt in Amsterdam. On regaining his freedom he sent his nephew to
Corsica with a supply of arms; he himself returned to the island in 1738, 1739
and 1743, but the combined Genoese and French forces drove him to wandering
about Europe. Arrested for debt in London he regained his freedom by mortgaging
his kingdom of Corsica, and subsisted on the charity of Horace Walpole and some other friends until his
A commune in the western suburbs of Paris, it is located 4.2 miles from the
centre of Paris. Louis Philippe
purchased the Château of Neuilly in 1818, which was destroyed in the 1848
Louis-Phillippe’s residence a centre for malcontents.
BkXLII:Chap4:Sec1 Carrel signs himself from Puteaux near
there in October 1834.
The Battle of Neuwied (in the
Rhineland-Palatinate) was fought on April 18, 1797. It resulted in the
victory of the French under General Hoche
against the Austrians under General Wermecek.
Commissaire du gouvernement pour les
sciences et les arts in 1800. Professor of drawing at the new École
Polytechnique in 1803.
BkXIV:Chap1:Sec1 Admirer of
Madame de Clermont-Tonnerre.
Introduced Chateaubriand to Saint-Martin.
Gave a dinner for Chateaubriand and Saint-Martin on
27th January 1803.
of York and chancellor of England, George was the youngest son of Richard
Neville, 5th Earl of Salisbury, and brother of Richard Neville, 16th Earl of
Warwick, known as the ‘Kingmaker.’
1465, he was translated to the See of York. His installation-feast, on the 15th of January 1566 at
Castle presented one of the most
marvellous culinary displays on record (the ‘Great Feast of Cawood’). The list
of provisions included wild bulls, swans and cranes.
of Canada (since 1949) including the coast of Labrador and the triangular
Island of Newfoundland lying between the Atlantic Ocean and the Gulf of St Lawrence. The island was discovered by John Cabot in
1497, and became an English fishing-station.
Chateaubriand reached Saint-Pierre off
the coast of Newfoundland on the 23rd May 1791.
The island’s coast is about forty kilometres north-east of Saint-Pierre.
Newton, Sir Isaac
1642-1727. The British mathematician and scientist, who was professor
at Cambridge (1669-1701), MP for the university
(1689-1690) and Master of the Mint (1699-1727). His work was crucial in
gravitational theory, mechanics, calculus, and optics. His main publications
were the Philosophiae naturalis principia
mathematica (1687-1687) and his Optics
Buried in Westminster Abbey.
BkX:Chap9:Sec1 Subject of
interest to a mathematician.
Tycho Brahe as the Danish
The city and major port in
Louisiana, located on a bend of the Mississippi, hence called the
Crescent City. Founded in 1718, it became the capital of
the French Colonial region of Louisiana before passing to Spain in 1763. It returned briefly to
France in 1803 but passed to the USA in the same year.
The city in
State, on New York Bay, at the mouth of the Hudson River. Henry Hudson sailed into the bay in 1620
and his glowing reports led to Dutch colonisation in 1625. In 1664 the city, New Amsterdam, was captured by the English for the Duke of
York and so re-named. From 1789-1790 it was the first capital of the
USA, prior to the creation of Washington D.C in
BkVIII:Chap5:Sec2 BkVIII:Chap7:Sec1 Mentioned.
Chateaubriand arrived there from Baltimore.
The stagecoach route covered the 150 kilometre journey in a day. It was a town
of about 30,000 people, about half the size of Nantes at
Chateaubriand took the packet there for Albany.
Ney, Michel, Marshal, Duke of
Elchingen, Prince of the Moskva
1769-1815. A Marshal of France, he was called ‘the bravest of
the brave’ by Napoleon. A cooper’s son from Saarlouis, he rapidly rose to glory
in the Revolution. He distinguished himself in the campaigns of 1794 and 1795,
commanded the army of the Rhine briefly in 1799, seized
Elchingen (1805), and conquered the Tyrol. His
assistance was decisive in Napoleon’s victory at Friedland. Ney’s greatest feat was his
rearguard action during the retreat from Moscow
in 1812. Later, he was one of the generals who urged Napoleon to abdicate after
Leipzig. He was raised (1814) to
the peerage by Louis XVIII. On
Napoleon’s return from exile in Elba, he re-joined the
Emperor, and commanded in the Waterloo
campaign. He was condemned for treason by the house of peers and shot.
Jomini was attached to his staff.
(Chief of staff after Tilsit.)
BkXXI:Chap2:Sec1 BkXXI:Chap3:Sec1 At
On the retreat from Moscow Ney commanded the rear-guard.
At Smolensk in November 1812.
Temporarily cut off during the retreat from Smolensk.
At the Berezina.
His conspicuously fine general-ship during the retreat.
BkXXII:Chap4:Sec1 Bernadotte defeated Ney at
Dennewitz near Berlin on 6th September 1813.
21:Sec1 Rallied to Louis XVIII at Compiègne in 1814.
His defection back to Napoleon in 1815.
In Paris after the Hundred Days.
Decazes involved in his arrest on
August 1815 at a
château on the borders of Lot and
Two major waterfalls on the US-Canadian border, they are on the
Niagara River, between Lakes Erie and Ontario.
Chateaubriand arrived there in time for the full moon of
The setting for the tales of Atala and René.
The city in south-east France, capital of the Alpes-Maritimes department
on the Baie des Anges, it was ceded by Sardinia to France in 1860.
Headquarters of the Army of Italy in 1796. Napoleon arrived on the 16th
March 1796, and
lodged in the Maison Sauvaigo.
Pius VII there in 1809.
BkXXII:Chap8:Sec1 Pius VII passed through on his way back to
Italy in 1814.
The Duchesse de Duras died there 16th January 1828.
Chateaubriand on his way there in 1829.
I, Emperor of Russia
1769-1855. Son of Paul I and younger brother of Alexander, he was Emperor of
Russia and King of Poland from 1825-1855. He was an
autocratic ruler whose accession was followed by the unsuccessful Decembrist
Revolt, which served only to further harden his conservatism. His Balkan
ambitions precipitated the Crimean War.
His marriage to Alexandra Feodorovna
took place in July 1817.
Chateaubriand met him in 1821 in Berlin.
Mentioned in 1827.
A sarcasm regarding Nicholas, since Russia was a source of cholera which had enabled
the Tsar to wipe out the Polish insurgents, the Warsaw executioner also being considered a
personification of cholera.
Grand Duchess, see Alexandra
Grand Duke, see
of Pisa, see Pisano
II, Gérard de Bourgogne, Pope
d. 1061. Pope 1059-1061. Formerly, he was Bishop
At the Easter Lateran mass of 1059, the
Pope brought 113 bishops to
Rome to consider the process of Papal
successon. There was considerable controversy as late as the 18th century over
the authenticity of thie resulting decree which stated that the Cardinal
Bishops must confer to pick a candidate for the next election. It additionally
stated that the other clergy and laity had a right to name their candidate
also. The Pope was required to be a Roman unless there were no good Catholic
Roman candidates. Thirdly the conclave must meet in Rome unless exceptional
circumstances precluded it. Fourthly if a war or other circumstances
intervened, a cardinal could be excused fom the traditional ceremonies of
celebration for the new pope. Finally, under the rules set up by Henry III of
Germany, the choosing of the new pope constituted an official election. The
third Lateran Council, held in 1179, brought in the two thirds majority.
4th century. Saint Nicholas ‘of
Bari’, is said to have
been born at Patara in Lycia, a
province of Asia Minor. Myra, the capital, not far from the
sea, was an Episcopal See, and this church falling vacant, the holy Nicholas
was chosen bishop, and in that station became famous by his extraordinary piety
and zeal and many astonishing miracles. The Greek histories of his life agree
that he suffered imprisonment for the faith and made a glorious confession in
the latter part of the persecution raised by Diocletian, that he was present at
the Council of Nicaea and there condemned Arianism. The silence of other
authors makes many justly suspect these circumstances. He died at
Myra, and was buried in his
According to the Bible he was a member of the
Sanhedrin in Israel during the life of Jesus. A secret disciple of Christ, he
met him by night to avoid the wrath of the other members of the Sanhedrin, and
eventually spoke out to that body to remind them that Jesus had a right to a
hearing. With Saint Joseph of Arimathea he prepared Jesus' body and placed him
in the tomb. There was an apocryphal "gospel" that was purported to
have been written by him, sometimes entitled the Acts of Pilate.
Tradition says he was a martyr, though no details have survived.
The story of
Nicodemus is told in Saint John's Gospel (John 3:
1-21). Note that near Pontivy in central
Brittany is the town of Saint-Nicolas-des-Eaux, where there is a sacred
fountain dedicated to Saint Nicodemus.
In 1803 he published a work Memorie,
leggi ed osservazioni sulle campagne e sull’annona di Roma, which became an
The Nibelungenlied is an epic
poem in Middle High German. It tells the story of dragon-slayer Siegfried at
the court of the Burgundians, and of his wife’s revenge, which leads to the
death of all the protagonists. It is based on pre-Christian Germanic heroic
motifs (the ‘Nibelungensaga’), which include oral traditions and reports based
on historic events and persons from the 5th and 6th centuries. Old Norse
parallels of the legend survive in the Völsunga saga and the Atlakviða.
1776-1831. He was a
historian, born in Copenhagen. He served in the Danish and, after 1806, in the
Prussian civil service, took part in the foundation of the
University of Berlin, and was (1816–23) Prussian Ambassador to the Holy See. From 1823 to
his death he taught at the University of Bonn. Niebuhr’s History of Rome (1811–32) may be said to have inaugurated
modern scientific historical method.
BkXXIX:Chap5:Sec1 A friend of
Niemen (Neman), River
Approximately 580 miles long, the
river rising in central Belarus, south-west of Minsk, flows generally west to
Grodno, then north and west through southern Lithuania to form part of the
Lithuania–Kaliningrad Region border before entering the Kursky Zaliv of the
Baltic Sea through a small delta. Kaunas
and Sovetsk are large cities along its course. The Neman
is navigable c.60 miles above Grodno.
The meeting of Napoleon I and Tzar Alexander I, which resulted in the
Treaty of Tilsit (1807), took place on a
raft in the middle of the river.
Napoleon’s Army crossed the Niemen on June
23-24 1812 and
The retreating army under Ney crossed and destroyed the
Niemen bridge on the 14th December
of Egypt, the longest river in the world: its sources
in Burundi and Ethiopia form the White and Blue Nile which meet at Khartoum, and flow northwards to the Mediterranean.
Egypt in 332-331BC.
sculptures of the Nile and the Tiber,
now in the Vatican,
are Imperial Roman copies of Greek originals.
The city in southern
France, capital of the Gard department it was an important Roman settlement
and a Protestant stronghold in the 16th and 17th centuries. The Roman aqueduct
the Pont du Gard lies to the north-east.
The amphitheatre is one of the best preserved of the Roman world. It was
built in the 1st century AD, around the same time as that at Arles,
and was designed by the same architect. The Maison Carrée is a civic Roman temple built by Agrippa, who
died in 12 BC. It was dedicated to his
two sons, Caius and Lucius, heirs of Augustus
who both died very young.
BkXXII:Chap8:Sec1 Pius VII passed through on his way back to
Italy in 1814.
An ancient city of
on the Tigris River,
it stood opposite the site of present-day Mosul,
Iraq. As capital of the
Assyrian Empire, it enjoyed great influence and prosperity, especially under
Sennacherib and Ashurbanipal (seventh century BC).
The city was captured and destroyed by Babylonia and its
allies in 612BC.
The reference is to Jonah III.4
A reference to Jonah’s prophecies of imminent disaster.
de Lenclos, Anne de Lenclos
1620-1705. A French authoress, and patron of the arts, she encouraged Molière and left money for books for the nine-year
old Voltaire, the son of her accountant. Ninon also took a succession of
notable lovers, including the king’s cousin the Great Condé, Gaspard de Coligny, and François, Duc de La Rochefoucauld. She was noted
for her wit and her friendships, and in France
is synonymous with the concept of intelligent beauty.
A town in Poitou-Charente.
Niort was once a
medieval port that developed around the
Niort boasts an immense 12th-Century donjon built by
II and Richard the Lion-heart and which played an important part
in the town's defence in the Hundred Years War.
BkXI:Chap3:Sec1 Birthplace of the Marquis de
Euryalus and Nisus were proverbial
friends, characters who die together fighting in Virgil’s
Aeneid (see Book IX).
A town in the district of
Schwandorf, in Bavaria, Germany, it is situated on the river Regen, 18 km
southeast of Schwandorf, and 24 km northeast of Regensburg.
Chateaubriand there in 1833.
River, in the Basque country, flows to the Atlantic near Saint-Jean-de-Luz.
Louis-Jules, Duc de
1716-1798. French diplomat and writer, son of Philippe-Jules-François,
duc de Nevers, and Maria Anne Spinola, and great-nephew of Cardinal Mazarin, he served in the campaigns in Italy
(1733) and Bohemia (1740), but had to give up soldiering on account of his weak
health. He was subsequently ambassador at
Rome (1748-1752), Berlin (1755-1756) and London, where he negotiated the treaty of
Paris (February 10, 1763). From 1787 to 1789 he was a member of the
Council of State. He did not emigrate during the Revolution, but lost all his
money and was imprisoned in 1793. He recovered his liberty after the fall of Robespierre, and died in Paris.
Dismissed by Louis XVI in 1789.
Anne-Louise-Marie de Beauvau, Duchesse de Mouchy, Princesse de Poix, Comtesse
1750-1834. Wife of Louis-Philippe.
Her fashionable soirees.
Léontine, Vicomtesse de
1791-1851. Granddaughter of Louis
Philippe, she married her cousin Vicomte Alfred de Noailles (1766-1812) in
BkXXVII:Chap5:Sec1 She arrived in England in June 1822 with her father the Duc de Mouchy.
Noailles, Louis-Adolphe-Alexis, Comte de
1783-1835. Eldest son of Louis Marie,
he was signatory to the Act of the Congress of Vienna in 1815.
23:Sec1 An avowed Royalist.
Louis Marie, Vicomte de
The second son
of Philippe, Duc de Mouchy. He served brilliantly under Lafayette in America, and was the
officer who concluded the capitulation of Yorktown in 1781. He was elected to
the Estates-General in 1789. On 4 August 1789 he began the famous
"orgy", as Mirabeau
called it, when all privileges were abolished, and with the Duc d’Aiguillon proposed the abolition of
titles and liveries in June 1790. He later emigrated to the United States and
became a partner in Bingham's bank in Philadelphia. He took command against the
English in San Domingo, under Rochambeau.
He made a brilliant defence of the Môle St Nicholas and escaped with the
garrison to Cuba, but en route there his ship was attacked by the
English frigate Hazard, and after a long engagement he was severely
wounded, dying of his wounds in Havana on 9 January 1804. Brother-in-law of Lafayette.
the attack on aristocratic privileges in the National Assembly on 4th
An associate of Lauzun.
Louis-Philippe-Marc-Antoine, Duc de Mouchy, Prince de Poix,
1752-1819. Husband of the Princesse de Poix.
In 1789 he was elected to the
Estates-General but was compelled to resign in consequence of a duel with the
commander of the National Guard of Versailles. He left the country for some
time, but returned to France and took part in the riots of August, 1792. He
was, however, forced to quit the country once more to evade the fate of his
father and mother, guillotined in 1794. On his father’s death, he acceded à
brevêt to the titles of comte de Noailles and duc de Poix, as
well as to the Spanish title duc de Mouchy. Returning to France in 1800,
he lived quietly at his residence in Mouchy-le-Châtel (Oise) during the Empire.
After the Bourbon Restoration, he again came into favor and in 1817 was created
duc de Mouchy as a French title, thus becoming a Peer of France.
22:Sec1 In Paris at the Restoration in 1814.
1174-1835. Daughter of the financier and farmer-general Jean-Joseph de
Laborde, she married Charles Arthur Tristan de Noailles future Duc de Mouchy in
Chateaubriand refers to her. He met her in 1805.
Chateaubriand refers to her without naming her.
1780-1844. A French author, he wrote Trilby (1822).
1265?-1313. A French statesman and jurist, he was a member of
the royal council of King Philip IV.
During Philip’s conflict with Pope concerning papal authority, Nogaret was
prominent in denouncing the pope. In 1303 he led the French troops sent to
kidnap Boniface at Anagni. Although
Nogaret made the pope his prisoner, he was forced to release him when the populace
rose in Boniface's defence. Boniface died (Oct., 1303) within a month, and his
successor issued a papal bull (1304) against Nogaret. He finally obtained
absolution in 1311. Philip made him keeper of the seal and he was instrumental
in the attack on the Templars.
d.1830 A Lieutenant in the Gendarmerie, he was killed in 1830. He had
been decorated in 1813 for his bravery at Caldiera.
Present at the interrogation of the Duc d’Enghien
Killed during the July Revolution.
Nola is a city of Campania, in the province of Naples, situated in the plain
between Mount Vesuvius and the Apennines. Called Nuvlana on the most
ancient coins, it was one of the oldest cities of Campania. Sulla, in 80
BC, subjected it with the rest of Samnium. Seven
years later it was stormed by Spartacus, for which reason Augustus and Vespasian placed colonies
there. Though losing much of its importance, it remained a municipium
with its own institutions and the use of the Oscan language. It became a Roman
colony under Augustus, who died there in 14
It was famous for the manufacture of Greek style vases of yellow clay, with
black glaze backgrounds, and red-figures.
Second Battle of
Fought on August 3, 1645 between forces of the Holy Roman Empire and France.
An Imperial army, led by Field Marshal Franz, Freiherr von Mercy, were encamped
around the village of Alerheim near Nördlingen in Bavaria. It was attacked by a
French army under the command of Louis
de Bourbon, Duc d'Enghien and Marshal Henri, Vicomte de Turenne. The French won the battle, Von
Mercy was killed and the Bavarians driven from the field, but the heavy
casualties had so weakened the French that they were unable to press home their
advantage. In the wake of the battle, the Bavarians began peace negotiations
that led to the Truce of Ulm two years later.
The fourth HMS Northumberland was completed in April 1798. Built at
Deptford on the Thames, she was a 74-gun ship and weighed over 1,900 tons. She
served with distinction throughout the French wars. In 1801 she supported the
successful Army expedition to Egypt. In June 1805, she was blockading the north
coast of Spain when the French Fleet began the long cruise which was to end at
Trafalgar; she joined Nelson in the West Indies but was
left in the area to mop up the French ships supporting the enemy’s colonies. In
February 1806, the British squadron tracked down the largest remaining French
formation and in the Battle of San Domingo took or destroyed all of the five
Third Rates, only two frigates escaping. Returning to European waters,
Northumberland had to wait until May 1812 before she again engaged the French
Navy, this time at Groix Island. Her final wartime service (under Admiral Cockburn’s command) was to convey Napoleon from Plymouth to St. Helena, where the former
Emperor was disembarked in October 1815. After a period in reserve, she was
re-employed for 22 years as a ‘Lazaretto’ in Standgate Creek, Sheerness, before
decommission in 1850.
Napoleon transferred to her from the Bellerephon.
Off St Helena on the 15th of October 1815.
Notable Details of the Roman
Empire, possibly written by
Ammianus Marcellinus (born c325-330 probably at Antioch, died after 391), a Roman scholar and historian.
His surviving work, part of his Res
Gestae covers the period 353-378. The so-called Notitia dignitatum is a compilation of 78 lists, interspersed with
89 pictures, which was ultimately copied from an original compilation that was
created, or last edited from its sources, between A.D. 395 and 425. Students of
the administrative and military organisation of the Roman state in the late 4th
century consider this document immensely valuable as an indispensable
supplementary source for understanding many, often less detailed, references
that are contained in other documents and inscriptions. The title Notitia
Imperii was undoubtedly derived from the Froben copy printed in
Basel in 1552.
A village near Valognes, in
peninsula. Notre-Dame d’Alleaume?
BkXVIII:Chap7:Sec1 The beach there.
Vicar-General at Saint Malo.
Signatory to Chateaubriand’s father’s death
Nouvelle Héloise, La
Julie, ou la nouvelle
Héloïse is an epistolary
romantic novel by Jean-Jacques Rousseau, published in 1761 by Rey (Amsterdam). The
original edition was entitled Lettres de deux amans habitans d'une petite
ville au pied des Alpes.The novel’s subtitle points to the the history of Héloïse and Pierre Abélard, a medieval incident of passion and
renunciation. The novel was put on the Index Librorum Prohibitorum.
Its effects mentioned.
The letters within it mentioned.
Novi, Battle of
The Battle of Novi in
Liguria in the French Revolutionary Wars was
fought on August 15, 1799.
It resulted in a victory for the Austrians and Russians under Field-marshal Alexander
Suvorov over the French under General Barthelemy
Joubert was killed early in the battle.
Noya, Jean de, for Juan da Nova
Castella (João da Nova)
Galician navigator who, in the service of
the islands of Ascension (1501), and
St. Helena (traditionally 21st May 1502), both off the
south-west coast of Africa. Commanding a fleet of four ships, Nova left
Portugal on a voyage
India in 1501. His
crews included Amerigo Vespucci, after whom
America was later
named. He died in
Charles, Vicomte de
He was editor in chief of Le Revenant,
a Legitimist paper (1832-1833).
Prague in September 1833.
A town in Hispania (modern-day Spain), which for a long time resisted
conquest by Romans. The city was finally taken and destroyed by the Consul Publius
Cornelius Scipio Aemilianus in 133 BC
after a long and brutal siege, which signalled the final subjugation of Iberia
by the Romans. It was the first notable military endeavour by Gaius Marius. Many of the citizens committed suicide
rather than accept slavery.
The burning of Moscow compared to Numantia.
A city in the German state of Bavaria, in the administrative region of Middle
Franconia. It is situated on the Pegnitz river and the (Rhine-) Main-Danube
Canal. It is located about 105 miles north of Munich.
20:Sec1 In 1806 with the Holy Roman Empire formally being dissolved,
Nuremberg lost its charter as a free Imperial city
(granted 1219) and passed to Bavaria 18th September 1806.