She was an assistant governess in the Royal Household in
Prague in May 1833.
The Valais (also known in German
as Wallis) is one of the 26 cantons
of Switzerland in the south-western part of the country, in the Pennine Alps
around the valley of the Rhone from its springs to Lake Geneva. The Romans
called the area Vallis Poenina (‘Upper Rhône Valley’). From 888
onwards the lands were part of the kingdom of Jurane Burgundy. King Rudolph III
of Burgundy gave the lands to the Bishop of Sion in 999, making him Count of
the Valais. It resisted Protestantization during the Reformation. In 1529,
Valais became an associate member (Zugewandter Ort) of the Swiss
Confederation. In 1628 it became technically a republic the République des
Sept Dizains/Republik der Sieben Zehenden under the guidance of the
prince-bishop of Sion and the bailli, until 1798 when Napoleon’s troops invaded and declared a
Revolutionary République du Valais (March 16) which was swiftly
incorporated (May 1) into the Helvetic Republic until 1802 when it became the
independent Rhodanic Republic. In 1810 the Rhodanic Republic was annexed
by Napoleonic France as the département of Simplon. Independence was
restored in 1813, and in 1815 the Valais finally entered the Swiss
confederation as a canton.
Napoleon nominated Chateaubriand as
Minister to the Valais on 29th November 1803, and Chateaubriand heard the news on the
28th of December the day before he left for Naples.
Chateaubriand returned to Paris on the 15th February 1804 and prepared to take up his post.
Château de, France
The château was built in 1540 by Robert d’Estampes and most notably
acquired in 1747 by the Scottish banker John Law.
A wing was added in the late 18th century. In 1803 the castle was purchased by Talleyrand.
In May 1808,
the Spanish Princes, captured at Bayonne,
were put in guarded accommodation at the château. They stayed there until March
1814, after the Spanish had signed the treaty of Valençay on December 11th 1813. The treaty gave
the Spanish throne to Prince Ferdinand,
despite the reserves expressed by the Cortès.
The Treaty of 1813.
The town is the capital of Drôme département, in the Rhône-Alpes
region of south-eastern
France. Built on a succession of
terraces bordering the Rhône, the town is dominated by the ancient Cathedral of
Saint-Apollinaire, which was consecrated by Pope Urban II in 1095 and completed
early in the 12th century.
French took Rome on 10th February, 1798, and proclaimed
the Roman Republic
on 15 February. Because Pius VI refused to
submit, he was forcibly taken from Rome
on the night of 20 February. At the end of March, 1799, though seriously ill,
he was over the Alps to Valence,
where he died. He was first buried at Valence,
but the remains were transferred to St. Peter's in Rome
Bonaparte was stationed there at sixteen in 1785, as a second-lieutenant of
artillery. There he met Caroline Colombier.
20:Sec1 Napoleon passed by on his way to
Elba in 1814.
Mademoiselle de, see Celles,
Footman at the London Embassy in 1822.
He was the
Rome in the West (425–455), whose reign was marked by numerous raids by
Germanic tribes. His sister was Justa Grata
BkXIX:Chap1:Sec1 Compared favourably with
Francis I of
‘The Choosers of the Slain’ (Old Norse) were the twelve nymphs of
Valhalla who mounted on swift horses charged into
battle with drawn swords selecting those who would die. These they conducted to
Valhall where they waited on them with mead and ale served in the skulls of the
vanquished. The three most prominent were Mista, Sangrida and Hilda.
Mentioned. The youngest of the Valkyrie was Brynhild which means
‘battle-ready’. Chateaubriand confuses the Valkyries with the three Norns, of
whom the youngest was Skuld, the future.
A Benedictine abbey 21 miles south-east of Florence, in the Apennines,
surrounded by forests of beech and firs. It was founded by Giovanni Gualberto,
a Florentine noble in 1038. It was extended around 1450, reaching its current
aspect at the end of the 15th century.
The French victory over the Prussians on the 20th of September 1792, took
place near Valmy, a French village about 35 miles southwest of Rheims. The day
after this first victory of the French Revolutionary troops, on 21 September,
in Paris, the French monarchy was abolished and the First French Republic
The young Duc d’Orléans fought
Chateaubriand passes the battlefield in 1833.
The Valois Dynasty succeeded
the Capetian Dynasty as rulers of France
from 1328-1589. They were descendants of Charles of Valois, the third son of
King Philip III and based their claim on a reintroduction of the Salic law.
Mademoiselle de, Charlotte Aglaé d’Orléans, Duchess of Modena
1700-1761. She was the third daughter of Philippe II d’Orléans, and married Francesco
Maria III d’Este, Duke of Modena (1698-1780, Duke from 1737), on
July 1720. She
received a dowry of 1.8 million livres, half of which was provided by the King
The house, at Châtenay, Chateaubriand
bought in August 1807. He was banished from
Paris after publishing an article in the Mercure de France that annoyed the
Emperor, and bought the property (by contract dated 22nd August 1807) for 20,000 francs with a loan raised by a
mortgage on the property. (The house is now 87 Rue Chateaubriand in
Châtenay-Malabry, Hautes-de–Seine. It was bought by the Département in 1987 and
is open to the public.). He lived there at various times during the next ten
years. The park was planted with saplings acquired from his travels in the
Middle-East and North
America. There he
wrote Les Martyrs (1809), L'Itinéraire de Paris a
Jerusalem (1811), Le Dernier Abencérage, and Moïse as well as large parts of the Mémoires. After the publication of his Monarchie selon la Charte in 1816, Chateaubriand
was sacked as a Minister and obliged to sell the property.
BkI:Chap1:Sec1 BkI:Chap2:Sec1 BkI:Chap3:Sec1 BkI:Chap5:Sec1 BkII:Chap5:Sec1 BkII:Chap7:Sec1 BkII:Chap8:Sec1 BkII:Chap9:Sec1 Chateaubriand
mentions the house as the location where he is writing specific chapters of the
The last lines written there before being forced to sell the property. The
Chateaubriands do not appear to have returned there after their long summer
wanderings of 1817. On returning to Paris, at the end of October, they took an
apartment at 42 Rue du Bac.
BkXIV:Chap1:Sec1 BkXXXVI:Chap1:Sec1 Chateaubriand
planted out the gardens.
His purchase of the house in 1807.
His presence there in 1813.
in the context of 1814.
Sold at the Chamber of Notaries of Paris, 21 July 1818. Chateaubriand, after clearing charges on
the property, netted only 15000 francs from the sale.
Madame Récamier rented the
property in 1817, going halves with Monsieur de Montmorency.
c1758-1798. A British navigator, he served his apprenticeship under
Captain Cook, and set out for a long voyage
in the Pacific in 1791. He visited Australia then proceeded north-west charting the west
coast of America, and circumnavigating the island in
British Columbia named after him.
His voyage to map the north-west coastline of America.
Dominique Joseph René, Comte
A French military officer,
who fought in the Napoleonic Wars. He was a brutal and violent soldier,
renowned for insubordination and looting. Napoleon once said to him, ‘If I had
two of you, the only solution would be to have one hang the other.’ At the
outbreak of the French Revolutionary Wars in 1793 he was a Brigadier General.
He was court-martialled for looting and suspended. Reinstated, he fought at the
First Battle of Stockach in 1799, but disagreement with General Jean
led to his being sent to occupation duties in
Holland. At the Battle of Austerlitz in 1805 he led the charge that recaptured the
Pratzen Heights. In the campaign of 1809, he fought in the battles of Abensberg,
Landshut, Eckmuhl and Wagram,
where he was wounded. In the campaign of 1813 Vandamme’s division was encircled
by the Prussian General Kleist at Kulm and 13,000 men were captured, including
Vandamme himself. Taken to Tsar Alexander of Russia, he was accused of looting, but is alleged to
have replied, ‘I am neither a plunderer nor a brigand but in any case, my
contemporaries and history will not reproach me for having soaked my hands in the blood of my father.’ (An
allusion to the murder of Paul I of Russia.) In the campaign of 1815 he was in command of
the 3rd Corps, under the direction of Marshal
He urged Grouchy to join Napoleon at the Battle of Waterloo, but Grouchy
preferred to pursue the Prussian 3rd Corps under General Johann von Thielmann,
winning the Battle of Wavre, but losing the war. After the restoration of
XVIII, Vandamme was exiled to
America, but was allowed to return in 1819.
BkXXII:Chap4:Sec1 Defeated at Kulm.
d. 1830 A student of the École Polytechnique in 1830.
Killed in the fighting of 29th July 1830.
The port in western France, capital of the Morbihan department on the
Gulf of Morbihan, was an important Celtic settlement.
d’Ornato, see Sampietro
c1516-1563. Vannina was executed by her husband, Sampietro, a piece of domestic history which
BkXIX:Chap5:Sec1 BkXIX:Chap5:Sec2 Mentioned.
1705-1788. He was an Italian poet.
BkXL:Chap1:Sec1 He was born in
Pointe de la, Brittany
The promontory lies 4km from Saint-Malo
between Rothéneuf and the beach at Pont.
The city in the department of the
Meuse, is on the River Aire near Verdun. The French royal family were recognised and
arrested there in June 1791 during their attempted flight to Montmedy.
Chateaubriand reads the news of the attempt, which reached
America in late August.
The third largest city in Bulgaria after Sofia and Plovdiv, it is the
capital of Varna Province and an important port in the eastern part of the
country, located on the Black Sea coast close to Lake Varna.
of Varna (July-September 29th,
1828) was an episode during the Russo-Turkish War of 1828-1829. Varna was held
by the Ottoman army.
1469-1524. Portuguese navigator, he rounded the
Cape of Good Hope in his fleet of three ships in 1497. He
crossed to Calicut in 1498. In a punitive expedition in 1502 he
asserted Portuguese rights in the Indian Ocean,
bombarding Calicut and returning with booty. Some 20 years
later he returned to India as Portuguese Viceroy and died there.
allusion to Camoëns’ Lusiades.
BkXX:Chap7:Sec1 It was Pedro Álvares Cabral (Portugal,
1467?-1520?) who, in 1500-1501, while commanding the second Portuguese
expedition to India, crossing the Atlantic, discovered Brazil, though Da Gama
had sailed close to South America on his wide detour over the Atlantic in 1497.
Bartholomew Diaz named the Cape, the
Cape of Storms in 1486, but Da Gama changed it to the Cape of Good Hope when he doubled it in 1497 on his voyage to
See Tasso’s poem ‘Vasco, le cui felici…….’
Antoine Lefebvre de
1789-1860. Secretary-General of the Justice Ministry, he participated
in Martignac’s Ministry from 1828. He
was Deputy for Valenciennes 1830-1834, then a member of the Legislature under the
Second Republic 1849-1851.
Education Minister 1828.
Sébastien Le Prestre, Seigneur de, Marquis, Marshal of France
1633-1707. Commonly referred to as Vauban, he was the foremost military engineer of his age, famed
for both his ability to design fortifications and to break through them.
Between 1667 and 1707, he upgraded the fortifications of around 300 cities
including Arras and Lille.
He directed the building of 37 new fortresses, and fortified military harbours,
including Toulon, Perpignan,
Rochefort, Brest, Dunkirk,
His fortification of Verdun.
On 28 May 1808
Napoleon I honoured Vauban by arranging to have his heart placed in a monument
erected under the dome of the
His fortification of Metz (1648), of which he
said ‘Metz defends the State.’
Vincent-Marie Viénot, Comte de
One of the French politicians who agitated
vociferously for the return of slavery, he was a right-wing representative for
the Seine-et-Marne departement in the French Legislative Assembly. Vaublanc was
on the side of the royalists, against the French Revolution. From November 15, 1791
to November 18, 1791 he served as the president of the Assembly and from
September 26, 1815 to May 7, 1816, he served as the French Interior Minister.
He functioned as the President of the Legislative Body from April 21, 1803 to
May 7, 1803.
In Ghent during the Hundred Days.
A department of south-eastern France,
formed in 1793 out of the county of
the principality of Orange, and a
part of Provence. The Rhone
is joined there by the Aygues, the Sorgue (rising in Petrarch’s celebrated
fountain of Vaucluse, which has given its name to the department), and the
impetuous Durance. Fontaine-de-Vaucluse is a medieval village tucked away in a
‘closed valley’ at the south-western corner of the mountainous Plateau de
Vaucluse, 25 km east of Avignon. Petrarch
had a property there from 1337 to 1353.
Chateaubriand visited in 1802.
Frédéric François Guillaume de, Baron
1772-1845. A Napoleonic General, he fought in
supported Napoleon during the Hundred Days and went into exile thereafter, returning
1825. Author of Mémoires pour
servir à l’histoire de la guerre entre la France et la
Russie en 1812 (1817).
BkXXI:Chap7:Sec1 The Mémoire cited is quoted.
He was a gravedigger at Saint-Mandé in 1837.
Joseph Hyacinthe François de Paule de
Rigaud, Comte de
1740-1817. Soldier, Socialite, Monarchist, Patron of the Arts. Born in
San Domingo, of a military line. His grandfather was Governor of Canada. He was
a wealthy patron of the arts, a major influence at court and in fashionable
society. His flight initiated the departure of the émigrés in 1789. He returned to
Paris after the collapse
of the First Empire and Louis XVIII
appointed him to the Chambre des Pairs
and to the Institut. He was also
given the rank of Lieutenant General in the army and made Governor of the Tuileries. He was Vigée Le Brun's most
important private patron and she painted numerous portraits of him and his
circle. It was in large part thanks to him that Mme Le Brun's salon became
fashionable, and she improvised in his honour her famous souper grec, one of the outstanding social events of the reign of
Louis XVI. Écouchard Lebrun linked them intimately in his
poem entitled: ‘L'Enchanteur et la Fée’.
Wife of Joseph.
Her fashionable soirees.
A gentleman possessed of feudal taxation rights.
Luc de Clapiers, Marquis de
1715-1747. A French moralist, essayist, and miscellaneous writer, he
entered the army and served for more than ten years, taking part during the War
of the Polish Succession in the Italian campaign of Marshal Villars of 1733,
and in the disastrous expedition to Bohemia, in support of Frederick II of
Prussia’s designs on Silesia, in which the French were abandoned by their ally.
BkXXXVIII:Chap5:Sec1 Vauvenargues took part in Marshal
Belle-Isle’s winter retreat from Prague. He suffered from frostbite, and never
Michel Bossinot de
1724-1809. Uncle of Chateaubriand by marriage, he was a member of the
municipality of Saint-Malo
His objections to the marriage.
Jean Bourlet, Abbé de
He was a friend of
BkXI:Chap3:Sec1 He co-founded the Mémorial journal.
Publius Flavius Vegetius Renatus
4th century. A military writer, his
treatise, Epitoma rei militaris (also referred to as De Re Militari),
was dedicated to the reigning emperor (possibly Theodosius the Great) and contains
a series of military maxims which were the foundation of military learning, for
every European commander, up to Frederick the Great.
Diego Rodríguez de Silva y,
A Spanish painter, he was the leading
artist in the court of King Philip IV of Spain.
He visited Rome in 1629-31 and 1649-50.
A Character in Les Martyrs, ou le triomphe de la religion
Chateaubriand: the work was written to show the triumph of Christianity over
paganism. In Armorica, the Christian Eudore meets with Velleda a Druidic priestess,
who ultimately kills herself.
Brittany the setting for Les Martyrs.
Les Martyrs (Books IX and X).
The name derives from a Celtic (Batavian) prophetess, Veleda or Weleda, in Tacitus’ Histories
quotation is from Les Martyrs, Book
Mentioned. Les Martyrs of 1809
pre-dates Byron’s Childe-Harold of 1812.
1709-1759. A Jesuit historian, he was the author of a Histoire de France which started to
appear in 1755.
VI, King of Bohemia, see Wenceslas
Vendôme, Duc de
A character in Voltaire’s play
du Guesclin (1734) which
helped bring dramatisations of the Middle Ages to the French theatre.
1393-1478. He was Doge of Venice 1476-1478.
BkXXXIX:Chap7:Sec1 His tomb in Santi Giovanni e Paolo,
Vene del Tempio, Italy
The springs of Vene del Tempio, are at the source of the Clitunno River, in antiquity the Clitumnus, in Umbria. Its waters rise
by the ancient Via Flaminia near the town of Campello sul Clitunno between Spoleto
and Trevi: the spring was celebrated as a great beauty spot by the Romans but
also by Byron; in the 19th
century it was planted with willows.
Chateaubriand there in October 1828.
The city in north-east Italy, the capital of Veneto, is a seaport built on over 100 islands in
the Lagoon of Venice, an inlet of the Gulf of Venice at the head of the Adriatic. Founded around the 5th century,
Venice was united in 697 under the first Doge. It
became an independent Republic and a great commercial and maritime power,
defeating its rival Genoa in 1380. It declined in the 16th century after the discovery of the Cape route to India. With Venetia it came under Austrian control in 1797 and
was incorporated in the Kingdom of Italy in 1866.
BkI:Chap4:Sec4 BkIII:Chap9:Sec1 BkXIV:Chap7:Sec1
Its donne pericolanti, dangerous
women i.e. courtesans.
BkXII:Chap4:Sec1 Byron’s presence there 1816-1819,
Chateaubriand’s in 1806, 1833, and 1839.
Chateaubriand there in 1806 with Madame
de Chateaubriand, on his way
to the Levant.
is near Venice (and became a part
of it in the 14th century).
Venice on May 12th 1797.
Ceded to Austria in 1797.
The League of Cambrai, 1508–10, was an
alliance formed by the Holy Roman Emperor Maximilian I, King Louis XII of
France, Pope Julius II, King Ferdinand V of Aragón, and several Italian
city-states against the republic of
to check its territorial expansion.
The Venice Arsenal, the shipyard and naval depot, contained The Bucentaur
(from Venetian bucintoro, or
buzino d’oro, golden barge, the latinized Virgilian derivation of
‘ox-headed’ from its figurehead, actually a Venetian lion, is fanciful)
the state galley of the Doges of Venice, in which, every year on Ascension Day
up to 1789, they put out into the Adriatic in order to perform the ceremony of
wedding Venice to the sea. The last and most magnificent of the Bucentaurs,
built in 1729, was destroyed by the French in 1798 less for the sake of its
golden decorations than as a political gesture. Remains of it are preserved at
Venice in the Museo Civico Correr and in the Arsenal, where a fine model of it
can be found.
I Piombi, the Leads, were the prisons of the
Venetian Republic, having leaded roofs, in the
Great Palace, which were entered from the Bridge of Sighs. The ruling Council of Ten of Venice met in an adjoining room, the Bussola. See
Casanova’s The Story of My Escape from
the Prisons of the Venetian Republic (1788).
The Duchesse de Berry asks
Chateaubriand the meet here there, in 1833.
The Brenta runs from the Trento
to the Adriatic Sea just south of the Venetian lagoon in
the Veneto region. It is 108 miles
long and was first channelled in the 16th century when a long canal was built
from the village of Stra
to the Adriatic Sea. The work was planned by Giocondo.
The Hotel de l’Europe on the Grand Canal,
was created by a conversion of the 15th century Palazzo Giustiniani in 1817.
(See E.V. Lucas’ A Wanderer in
Venice: XI) Turner, Verdi and Proust were its
guests at various times. The Dogana di Mare is the Customs House, the Giudecca
is an island in the Lagoon, as is that next to it of San Giorgio Maggiore with
its Palladian church. The great
piazza is that of San Marco with its Basilica, the Procuratie Nueve is one of
the two great arcades in the piazza, the Zecca nearby was the city Mint until
1870, and gave its name to the zecchino
or Venetian ducat. The Clock-tower, the Torre dell’Orologio is above an
entrance to the square, the Campanile is the bell-tower, rebuilt after its
collapse in 1902. The Lion column is that of San Marco on the Piazzetta
surmounted by the Lion of St Mark in bronze (thought to be a Chinese chimera
with wings added).
The Doge’s Palace and the
Ducal Palace are one and the same.
The Frari is the Gothic church of Santa Maria Gloriosa dei Frari (a corruption of Frati, or brothers)
on the Campo dei Frari. The Accademia di Belle Arti was founded in 1750 by the
painter Piazetta but moved in 1807 by Napoleon to the Campo della Carità and
enlarged by works from monasteries and churches he suppressed.
The Arsenale was founded in the 12th century and enlarged in the 14th and 16th
to become the greatest naval shipyard in the world. The word arsenal derives from the Arabic darsina’a, house of industry. At peak
efficiency it could turn out a galley a day.
The island of San Cristoforo della Pace
was off the Fondamente Nuove, the new
cemetery. The isle was used as a cemetery by Napoleon’s decree of December
1807. In 1836 it was merged with San Michele, whose cemetery is now full in
turn. San Michele with its dark cypresses lies opposite the Fondamente, and contains Ezra Pound’s
grave among others.
The Riva degli Schiavoni, or Quay of the Dalmatians (the Schiavoni), which
Chateaubriand translates as the Quai des Esclavons or Quay of Slavs/Slaves, is
Venice’s main waterfront, built on silt dredged from the bed of the
Grand Canal during the 9th century. The Schiavoni were Slav merchants who
delivered meat and fish to its wharves. The Riva degli Schiavoni commences at
the Doges Palace,
then crosses the Rio del Palazzo by means of the Ponte della Paglia (Bridge
of Straw), so-called because imported
straw was once unloaded there
The Lido is an 8 mile long sandbank which forms a natural barrier between
Venice and the sea, it is now both a residential
suburb and a seaside resort. The Mocenigo Palace (c1730), formed of four linked Palazzos, on
the Grand Canal has a plaque to Byron who lived there in
Florian’s and Quadri’s cafes still grace St Mark’s Square. San Pietro di
Castello, on its island, with its free-standing tilting campanile was the
cathedral of Venice until 1807 when San Marco took its place.
The existing church is mid-16th century with a Palladian design. The Giudecca, the
name possibly deriving from the 13th century Jews, the giudei, who lived there, is an island, was a pleasure ground of
palaces and gardens in the days of the Republic.
The Piazetta runs from the Molo San Marco to the main Piazza, and Chateaubriand
stood near the Columns of San Marco and San Teodoro looking towards the Torre
dell’Orologio, then turned round to look across the
Pellestrina is an island forming a barrier between the southern Venetian Lagoon
and the Adriatic Sea, lying south west of the Lido.
The island is 11 kilometres long and has since the eighteenth century been
bounded to its seaward side by large embankments. There are four main villages:
San Pietro in Volta, Porto Secco, San
Antonio and Pellestrina, known for their
colourfully-painted houses. Malamocco in the Lido chain
is a small town with a fine harbour built on sand dunes outside the lagoon, at
the sea outlet of a former branch of the River Brenta, which once linked the
town on the edge of the open sea to Padua
and its inland areas.
He was Commander of the 25th Brigade at
Acre in 1799.
Killed at Acre?
Duc de, see Lévis,
The Roman Goddess of Love, she was the
Jupiter and Dione. She was the Greek Aphrodite, born
from the waves, an incarnation of Astarte, Goddess of the Phoenicians. The
mother of Cupid by
Mars (See Botticelli’s painting – Venus and Mars
– National Gallery,
BkIII:Chap8:Sec1 BkXLII:Chap6:Sec1 Mentioned.
BkXIII:Chap6:Sec1 The type of beauty.
statue of Aphrodite of the Gardens at
Athens was a work of Alcamenes (fl. 5th century BC), a pupil
Phidias. There is a Roman copy of
the work in the Louvre. (See Pausanias, Description
of Greece: Attica 19.2: ‘Concerning the district called The Gardens, and
the temple of Aphrodite, there is no story that is told by them, nor yet about
the Aphrodite which stands near the temple. Now the shape of it is square, like
that of the Hermae, and the inscription declares that the Heavenly Aphrodite is
the oldest of those called Fates. But the statue of Aphrodite in the Gardens is
the work of Alcamenes, and one of the most noteworthy things in
BkXXXII:Chap12:Sec1 She was the mother of
Anchises, and Iulus and the Julian House were descended from her according to
Graces were her attendants.
BkXLI:Chap2:Sec1 The planet Venus was indeed rising in Leo, and
close the star Regulus, in the east north-east between 2 and 3 am, as seen from
the neighbourhood of Linz, on the morning of the 25th of September 1833
(Checked with Redshift 4 star charting software)
The town is in north-east France on the River Meuse, in the Meuse department. Strategically positioned on the
eastern approaches to the Paris basin, it was long an important fortress.
BkXLII:Chap2:Sec1 Surrendered to the anti-Revolutionary allies
on 2nd September 1792. Chateaubriand arrived there on the 23rd September. The forty young
women had been condemned to death by the criminal tribunal of the Meuse in April 1794.
Chateaubriand there in June 1833.
A town west of Moscow.
Napoleon there on the 27th October 1812. The 27th Bulletin is dated from there.
Bermudo II the Gouty, of Leon and Galicia
956-999. King of
BkXXXVII:Chap5:Sec1 His son Alphonso V (994-1028) was King of
Leon in 1001.
painter, b. Avignon, studied with
his father, Antoine Vernet, a decorative painter, and in Rome,
where he acquired a reputation for fine work. He was summoned to Paris
in 1753 and commissioned by the king to
paint the famous series of seaports of France.
He finished 14 of them (Louvre).
Émile Jean Horace
1789-1863. One of the most popular military painters of the 19th cent,
he is best known for his decorations of the Constantine Room at Versailles and
his Defense of the Barrier at Clichy (Louvre). He was the grandson of Joseph.
Chateaubriand sees him in Rome in
Henriette d’Entragues, Marquise de
1579-1633. Mistress of Henri
IV after the death of Gabrielle d'Estrées,
she subsequently bore him two children, Henri 1601-1682 and Gabrielle-Angelique
1603-1627. Henriette and her family were discovered to be plotting to have
Spain recognise her son Henri, as rightful heir to
the throne on the death of Henri IV, though she was eventually reconciled with
Her sister a mistress of Bassompierre.
An ancient town, episcopal see and province in the Veneto, Northern Italy, in
a loop of the Adige River near Lake Garda. The Congress of Verona, 1822, was the last European conference
held under the provisions of the Quadruple Alliance of 1814. The main problem
discussed was the revolution in Spain
against Ferdinand VII, and
the congress decided that a French army, under mandate of the Holy Alliance,
should suppress the rebellion. This decision was protested by the British
foreign minister, George Canning,
and led to a growing rift between Great Britain
and the other powers.
Chateaubriand was French
Plenipotentiary there. Alexander
I of Russia was
present in person. The Countess von Lieven
was able to meet her lover Metternich
at the various Congresses.
The convening of the Congress in 1822.
BkXXX:Chap13:Sec1 BkXXXV:Chap14:Sec1 Mentioned.
Chateaubriand’s Le Congrès de Vérone
was published on the 28th of April 1838.
Chateaubriand there in September 1833.
Chateaubriand recollects his 1822 visit.
Paulo Caliari, known as
painter of the Venetian school, his large, richly coloured, and harmonious
works include The Rape of Europa (1576).
Napoleon shipped artworks back to
His Martyrdom of St Justina in Santa
Giustina in Padua.
The town in North Central France chiefly famous for its baroque palace
the residence of the French kings between 1678 and 1769. It was built for Louis
XIV between 1676 and 1708 on the sire of
a hunting lodge, with architecture by Mansart, interior decoration by Le Brun
and gardens by Le Nôtre.
The Treaty of Versailles whereby Britain recognised American Independence and the
European powers agreed a peace, was signed there 3rd September 1783, but the preliminaries took several months. Motte-Picquet’s squadron, arriving
from Cadiz reached Brest
on the 1st April. That under the Marquis de Vaudreuil entered the roads on the
Chateaubriand passed through in 1786 on the way to
went there to be presented to the King in 1787.
The hunt there which Chateaubriand attended after being presented.
Chateaubriand passed through in June 1789 on his way to
Paris. He visited again in July 1789.
Chateaubriand points up the distance being the ruling class in
Versailles and the people of Paris, such that Necker’s dismissal echoed differently
in the city.
synonym for the Court in 1789.
The Flanders Regiment summoned there, arriving on the 29th September.
The National Assembly transferred from Versailles to Paris in October 1789.
The heart of the Court.
Corsica was sold to France by Genoa for 2 million livres by the Treaty of
Versailles of 15th May 1768. However it was not until the Battle of
Ponte-Nuovo in May 1769 that the island finally fell to the new owners.
BkXX:Chap5:Sec3 Philip V born there.
Troops there on the 31st of July 1830.
Grand and Petit Trianons, buildings used by the Kings’ and their intimate
The Parc-aux-Cerfs was the site of a
second Versailles, created from
Louis XIII’s Deer Park, where Louis
XIV’s pleasure house was located.
A French town and commune located in the Haute-Saône département.
The town is the préfecture of the département. It is 48km from
9-79. Known originally as Titus Flavius Vespasianus and usually referred to as Vespasian, he was emperor of Rome
from 69 to 79. He was the founder of the short-lived though influential Flavian
The Roman Colosseum was commenced in his reign.
A volcano, 1,281 m (4,200 ft)
high, in southern Italy
it lies on the eastern shore of the Bay
of Naples. A violent eruption in AD 79 destroyed the nearby cities of
and Herculaneum. Since that time it
has erupted about three dozen times.
Chateaubriand climbed it in January 1804.
town about halfway between Smolensk and Mozhaysk, on the Vyazma River, a
tributary of the Dnieper, founded in the 9th century Vyazma became an
important trade and military centre that was an object of contention between
Russia, Lithuania, and Poland.
BkXXI:Chap5:Sec2 Mentioned. There was a battle there on
3rd November 1812.
Anne-Victor-Denis Hurault, Marquis de
1766-1843. A former émigré, he was named as a Peer in 1815. As colonel
of cavalry he was aide de camp to Monsieur,
father of the Duc de Berry. He became
a Marshal in 1823.
Mentioned, in 1820.
Vic, Dominique de, Vicomte
de’Ermenonville, known as Le Capitaine Sarrède
Henri IV’s close friend and Councillor of State (1610), he died three months
after him in August 1610.
Duc de, see Caulaincourt
The capital of the eponymous province
in the Veneto region, at the
northern base of the Monti Berici, straddling the Bacchiglione,
is approximately 60 km west of Venice
and 200 km east of Milan.
Chateaubriand there in September 1833.
The spa town in central France is in the Allier department on the River Allier. Its waters,
known to the Romans, are bottled and exported worldwide.
was there in 1805.
Madame la Dauphine arrived from
there in July 1830.
1733-1799 She was the youngest daughter of Louis XV. She emigrated with her sister Adélaïde in 1791 and after sojourns
in Rome and Naples settled in Trieste.
She remained with the King Louis XVI
after the fall of the Bastille.
She and her sister, as aunts of the King, were referred to as Mesdames. They left for
Rome in February 1791.
They died in Trieste, see Book
Claude Victor-Perrin, Duke of Belluno, Marshal of France
1764-1841. Marshal of France: for his bravery at the siege of
in 1793 he was raised to the rank of general of brigade. He afterwards served
for some time with the army of the Eastern Pyrenees, and
in the Italian campaign of 1796-97 and in 1800 played an important role at Marengo. In 1802 he was governor of the
colony of Louisiana for a short
time, in 1803 he commanded the Batavian army. He distinguished himself at
Saalfeld, Jena, and at Friedland Napoleon made him a Marshal.
After the peace of Tilsit he became governor of Berlin,
and in 1808 was created duke of Belluno. In the same year he was sent to Spain,
where he took a prominent part in the Peninsular War (especially at Espinosa,
Talavera, Barrosa and Cadiz), until
his appointment in 1812 to a corps command in the invasion of Russia.
Here his most important service was in protecting the retreating army at the
crossing of the Beresina. He took an active part in the wars of 1813-14, till
he had the misfortune to arrive too late at Montereau-sur-Yonne. The result was
a scene of violent recrimination and his super-session by the emperor, who
transferred his command to Gerard.
Victor transferred his allegiance to the Bourbon dynasty, and in December 1814
received from Louis XVIII the command of the second military division. In 1815
he accompanied the king to Ghent,
and on the second restoration he was made a peer of France.
He was also president of a commission which inquired into the conduct of the
officers during the Hundred Days, and dismissed Napoleon’s sympathizers. In
1821 he was appointed war minister and held this office for two years. In 1830
he was major-general of the royal guard, and after the revolution of that year
retired into private life.
In action at Marengo on
BkXXI:Chap7:Sec1 At the
22:Sec1 At the Restoration.
Present at Ghent during the Hundred Days.
Alexandrina Victoria, Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland
father, the Duke of Kent and Strathearn, was the fourth son of King
George III and Queen Charlotte. Her mother was Princess
Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld. She was only 18 when she became queen
on the death of her uncle, William IV. In 1840 she married her first cousin Albert,
the German son of the Duke of Saxe-Coburg and
fl 1183-1204. A significant Provençal
Toulouse, he wrote a
famous love poem to Loba (the She-Wolf) of Carcasonne. See Ezra Pound’s ‘Pier Vidal Old’ from Personae (1910)
A self-confessed French criminal who later
became the foudner and first director of the Sûreté Nationale (the plainclothes
division). He was forced to resign in 1832 and subsequently founded the first
modern private investigation bureau. The information about him mostly comes
from his ghost-written autobiography. Vidocq is credited with having introduced
record-keeping, criminology and ballistics to criminal investigation. He made
the first plaster casts of shoe impressions. He also created indelible ink and unalterable
bond paper with his printing company.
1759-1830. Cardinal from 1816, he was an administrator in the Curia.
1791-1857. A former artillery officer in the
Grand Army, and fervent Bonapartist, he was tutor to Queen
Hortense’s children. He was Deputy for La Manche,
1842-1846, and 1848-1851. He became a Senator.
BkXXXV:Chap20:Sec1 A guest at
the 29th of August 1832.
The capital of Austria on the Danube, it was the seat of the Habsburgs
(1278-1918) and the residence of the Holy Roman Emperor (1558-1806). It became
an important political and cultural centre, associated with many great
occupied Vienna in May 1809.
Schonbrünn Palace site dates back to medieval times. The Ottomans attacked
in 1683 and destroyed the elegant complex. Three years later Emperor Leopold I
decided to build an opulent palace on the estate, and architect Johann von
Erlach developed the design for the structure. Construction activities
commenced in 1696, and the palace was completed in 1700. Under the rule of
Empress Maria Theresa, it became the hub of royal life.
The Ottoman Siege of 1529, represented
the farthest westward advance into central Europe of the Ottoman Empire. The Battle of 1683, following a siege, confirmed
the limit to Ottoman ambition in the West.
The reference is to Kaunitz (1711-1794), Chancellor of Austria at the time of
Vienna, Congress of
1814-15. The Congress of European powers met following the fall of
Napoleon. The chief countries represented were Austria (by Metternich),
and Wellington), France (Talleyrand), Russia, Prussia, and the Papacy. Its Final Act created a
Kingdom of the Netherlands, a German Confederation of 39 states,
Lombardy-Venetia subject to Austria, and the Kingdom of Poland. Legitimate monarchs were restored in Spain, Naples, Piedmont, Tuscany and Modena, and Louis
XVIII was confirmed as King of France.
24:Sec1 Talleyrand leaves
Paris to attend the Congress.
The decision regarding Naples.
In the Treaty of Vienna of 1815 most
of the territorial gains of Bavaria,
Württemberg, Baden, Hesse-Darmstadt, and Nassau
under the agreements of 1801-1806 were recognized. Bavaria
also gained control of the Rhineland Palatinate and parts of the Napoleonic Duchy
of Würzburg and Grand Duchy of Frankfurt.
1777-1868. A former soldier turned Liberal Deputy, and a versifier
hostile to Romanticism, he was an Academician, and later a Peer of France, in
At the Hôtel de Ville on the 31st of July 1830.
Italian singer at the Opera-Buffa,
A provincial doctor.
Abbé Ange Paul
1784-1836. Born at Bisinchi in Morasaglia canton,
Corsica, he was Napoleon’s junior chaplain at St Helena (from September 1819), and was the
priest who gave Napoleon extreme unction and conducted his funeral ceremony.
Giacomo Barozzi da
Italian 16th century Mannerist architect, his two
great masterpieces are the Villa Farnese at Caprarola and the Jesuits’ Chiesa
del Gesù in
three writers who spread the Italian Renaissance style throughout Western
Europe are Vignola, Serlio and Palladio. He designed Villa Giulia for Pope
Julius III, in Rome (1550‑1553). Here Vignola was working with Ammanati,
who designed the nymphaeum and other garden features under the general
direction of Vasari, with guidance from the knowledgable Pope and Michelangelo.
The second largest city in Carinthia
it is in the south of Austria,
on the river Drava (Drau).
Chateaubriand there in September 1833. Paternion is about 18 kilometres
north-west of Villach.
Claude Louis Hector de, Prince
de Martigues, Marquis and Duc de Villars and Vicomte de Melun
of Louis XIV’s great generals, he was one of only six Marshals promoted to Marshal
General of France.
or Vildéneux or Ville-De-Neuf, Demoiselles Loaisel de
Three sisters, neighbours of Madame de Bedée.
c.1160–c.1212, French historian and Crusader. As marshal of
Champagne, he was a leader of the Fourth Crusade which
resulted in the conquest (1204) of Constantinople and the creation of the Latin Empire of Constantinople. Villehardouin,
in his De la conquête de Constantinople (1585) described the Crusade and
the subsequent struggles of the Latin nobles against their Greek and Bulgarian
neighbours, from 1198 to 1207, with vivid detail and disarming frankness.
Reliable as a historical source, Villehardouin’s account stands as an early
masterpiece of French prose.
An example of a writer who was also involved with warfare.
See his Conquest of
A town now part of the southern suburbs of
Napoleon there in 1814. Henri IV
had learned there of the death of his mistress Gabrielle
d’Estrées in 1599.
Jean-Baptiste Guillaume Joseph Marie Anne Séraphin, Comte de
1773-1854. French statesman and premier (1822–28), he was elected
(1815) a deputy after the Bourbon restoration, he became leader of the extreme
royalists in the chamber of deputies. He entered the ministry of the Duc de Richelieu in 1820, and in 1822 King
Louis XVIII named him President of the
Council, or Premier. He stabilized France’s finances to such a degree that they
remained sound until the 20th cent. His reactionary government suppressed press
freedom, intervened (1823) in Spain against Spanish revolutionaries, prolonged
(1824) the term of the chamber of deputies from four to seven years, gave the
Roman Catholic Church increasing control of education, and indemnified (1825)
the émigrés for lands confiscated during the French Revolution. Assailed in
1827 by both the liberals and the extreme ultra-royalists, who found his
methods too slow, he dissolved the chamber. He was defeated in the new
elections and resigned.
His resignation on the 27th of July 1821 over a mater of the censure. Chateaubriand
resigned his embassy out of loyalty.
had joined the ‘Bayonnaise’ at Brest
in July 1788 and served in the West and East Indies.
Arrested in the Isle of Bourbon under the Terror, he was set free by the revolution
of Thermidor (July 1794). He acquired some property in the island, and married,
in 1799, Mélanie, the daughter of M. Henri Desbassyns de Richemont whose
estates he had managed.
Chateaubriand acquainted with him in 1816. A reference to his naval service in
Involved with the Conservateur.
His appointment to office in 1820. He had been Mayor of Toulouse in 1814-5.
Finance Minister from 14th December 1821 to 4th January 1828.
Chateaubriand applies to him for support over the Spanish situation.
His letter to Chateaubriand confirming the latter’s attendance at the Congress
He dismisses and replaces Chateaubriand in a note on
of June 1824.
Chateaubriand had been made Foreign Minister on the 28th of
December 1822, after
the Congress of Verona, where he had supported French
intervention in Spain to restore the monarchy there. Chateaubriand’s dismissal by the King
was brought about by his ‘treason’ in refusing to defend, though voting for, a
finance bill to reduce the interest paid on Government bonds proposed by
Villèle, on the 3rd of June 1824. Villèle considered Chateaubriand
responsible for the bill’s defeat in the Chamber of Peers, but it was probably Louis’ decision. The Chamber of Deputies
had been dissolved on the 24th of December 1823, the February/March 1824 elections had
brought in Louis’ ‘Unparalleled Chamber’ which now hastened to vote for a
seven-year rather than five-year term for renewal. Chateaubriand supported this
but judged it inadequate.
His settlement letter.
At the ceremony for the Knights of the Orders on the 30th of May 1825.
He arranges a pension for Chateaubriand.
Chateaubriand complains of his behaviour towards him.
Provoked by the Opposition in 1827.
The events surrounding the fall of his Ministry in 1827.
An examination of Chateaubriand’s differences with him.
His opposition to Polignac
becoming Ambassador to London.
A potential Minister still in 1830.
The Dauphin’s correspondence with
him during the Spanish War.
Chateaubriand recommends him to the Dauphine,
who criticises him (May 1833).
Mentioned as a possible member of Charles X’s Chateaubriand-led government in
scholar and critic, he was a professor at the Sorbonne from 1816, held several
government posts after 1830, and was permanent secretary of the
Academy from 1832. His reputation
as a literary critic was established by his Cours de littérature française
(1830), several times re-edited and enlarged, which included his notable Tableau
de la littérature au moyen âge and Tableau de la littérature française
au XVIIIe siècle.
article on Byron, of 1835, for the Biographie
Professor of the Sorbonne, academician since 1821, he had been sanctioned for
protesting against Peyronnet’s law on
the Press. Martignac allowed him to
resume his course.
He writes to Chateaubriand in Rome
in March 1829.
visits Chateaubriand under house arrest in 1832.
A town in the Essonne, it is in the Île-de-France region.
Cardinal de Bausset lodged there
for twenty years with the Bassompierre family, his cousins, who owned the château.
She was nurse to Chateaubriand when he was a small child.
BkI:Chap3:Sec2 BkI:Chap4:Sec6 BkI:Chap4:Sec8 BkI:Chap5:Sec2
Her unconfirmed death in 1786.
Léontine de, Comtesse de Castelbajac
1803-1897. A platonic admirer of Chateaubriand, she exchanged a number
of letters with him. She married the Count of Castelbajac, a magistrate of
Toulouse, on the 23rd of November 1829.
met Chateaubriand in Cauterets in August
1829, when she was twenty-six, not sixteen. She met him again in Toulouse
in 1838. While she was a fanatical admirer the relationship appears to have
been purely platonic, and the incident seems to have undergone some literary
He was supercargo on board the Saint-Pierre
Chateaubriand’s ship to America.
1789-1850. A former Prefect under the
The beautiful and historic walled town is in
Burgundy, near Joigny and Sens.
The Château de Passy nearby lived in by Joubert.
Chateaubriand visited Joubert there.
Arrangements to meet there in 1805.
The Chateaubriands were there in September 1828.
Chateaubriand recalls the poplars of Villeneuve on his journey through
Bavaria in June 1833.
The term here describes the inhabitants of Villeneuve-sur-Lot in
Lot-et-Garonne, or more properly now the region around it.
They send Chateaubriand a goblet in 1833.
Francois de Neufville, Duc de
France and favourite of Louis XIV, in the
War of the Grand Alliance, he succeeded (1695) Marshal Luxembourg
as commander in Flanders, where he was unsuccessful
against William III of England.
In the War of the Spanish Succession, he replaced Nicolas Catinat in Italy,
was defeated by the Austrian commander Prince Eugene of Savoy
at Chiari (1701), and was taken prisoner at Cremona
(1702). In 1706 he was defeated by the Duke of Marlborough at Ramillies. Villeroi held several high posts
between 1717 and 1722, when he fell into disgrace for intriguing against the
Regent. He died, in virtual exile, as governor of
BkXXIV:Chap5:Sec1 Louis XIV’s magnanimous comment to him after
Nicholas IV de Neufville, Seigneur de
1543-1610. Secretary of State and Minister to Charles IX, Henri III and
Charles-Michel, Marquis de
1734-1793. Writer, and husband of Reine.
Wealthy nobleman born in Paris he earned a law degree, and served in the Army during the Seven Year’s
War (1756-1763). He was pupil, godson and favourite of Voltaire
who was a friend of his mother. As a deputy for l’Oise, he voted against the
King’s death. He was savagely libelled in satirical pamphlets as a rich
wastrel, coward and sodomite. He died of natural causes.
1786-1802. Daughter of the Marquis.
Parny wrote an elegy on her at her death.
Reine-Philiberte Rouph de Varicourt, Marquise de
1757-1822. Voltaire’s ‘niece’, his ‘Belle et Bonne’. A girl of noble
family, she was rescued by him from a convent, and he adopted her in 1776. He
married her to Charles.
Chateaubriand met Mirabeau at her
house in the Rue de Beaune, on the 30th July 1789.
Her daughter died in March 1802.
Le Petit Villette consisted of the old Hôtel d’Elbeuf on the Rue de Vaugirard,
where the Marquise retired after the death of her husband in 1793, and the
Petit Hôtel d’Elbeuf in the cul-de-sac Férou, on the west side of the Rue
Ferou, next to the Saint-Sulpice Seminary.
Gonzalo (Gonçalo Velho Cabral de Mello)
1390-1460. Portuguese navigator. Discoverer of the Azores in 1432. Maternal grandfather of Camoëns according to Chateaubriand.
The Capital of Lithuana was initially a Baltic
settlement, it was also inhabitated by Slavs and, from at least the 11th
century, by Jews. Between 1503 and 1522 the city was surrounded by walls with
nine city gates and three towers. Vilnius reached the peak of its development
under the reign of Sigismund August who moved his court there in 1544.
Vilna on June 28th 1812.
BkXXI:Chap7:Sec1 The retreating French reached Vilna on
the 8th of December 1812, Napoleon
having already left for
France. Typhus and
dysentery were rife.
de Vincennes is a 14th and 17th century French royal castle in the town
of Vincennes, to the east of Paris, now a suburb of the metropolis. Like other
more famous châteaux it had its origins in a hunting lodge, set up for Louis
VII about 1150 in the forest of Vincennes. Abandoned in the 18th century, the
chateau still served, first as the site of the Vincennes porcelain manufactory,
the precursor to Sèvres, then as a state prison, which housed the marquis de
Sade, Diderot and Mirabeau, and then in 1796 an arms
manufactory, suiting it to its current occupants, the historical sections of
the French Armed Services.
Delisle de Sales imprisoned there
according to Chateaubriand. Actually he was imprisoned in the Chatelet.
Diderot imprisoned there in 1749.
BkXVI:Chap2:Sec2 BkXXIV:Chap16:Sec1 The
Duc d’Enghien held there. He arrived from
Strasbourg at four the evening on the 20th
of March 1804.
BkXX:Chap9:Sec3 BkXXII:Chap2:Sec1 Napoleon
imprisoned several Cardinals there in 1810.
Mentioned as a Parisian landmark.
The Ministers held there after the July revolution, Polignac, Peyronnet, Chantelauze and Guernon-Ranville, were charged with
high treason, and the trial took place between 15th and
leading ton various disturbances.
Nicolas-Charles, Baron de (=Karl Freiherr, Baron von)
Belgian (born in Florence) in Austrian service at the time of Waterloo, where he was one of the four Allied
Commissioners observing and was wounded, he had a prominent early military
career, and was Governor General of Belgium from May to August 1814 on behalf of the
Allied Powers. Aide-de-camp to Francis II, he had previously helped negotiate
the Peace of Campo-Formio in 1797. He was Austrian Ambassador to
Paris (1806 and 1814-1826). He had also been with
the Tsar at Erfurt (1808-1809) and in Sweden (1813). He held the Barony of Bioncourt in
Lorraine where he died.
Wounded at Waterloo.
de Paul, Saint
1581-1660. Ordained in 1600, he devoted his
life to the poor. Captured by Turkish pirates in 1605 he was released in 1607
after converting his owner. He established a foundling home in
and founded the Congregation of the Daughters of Charity and the Congregation
of the Priests of the
BkXXXVI:Chap1:Sec1 The foundling home mentioned.
Allowed to slip into a false
sense of security by the Russians, Marshal Murat
was caught completely by surprise, on the
18th of October 1812, when attacked by an army of 36,000 men under
Field Marshal Mikhail Kutuzov. With his
18,000 men assailed from three sides, Murat fought a dogged action. The French
eventually broke out of the trap and escaped. They left behind 3500 dead,
injured and captured, the Russians lost some 1500.
Angélique de La Live de Jully, Madame de
1763-1831. She married the Vicomte Hubert de Vintimille (1740-1817), a
naval officer. The niece of Madame de La
Briche and Madame d’Houdetot, and the
sister of Madame de Fezensac.
friend of Pauline de Beaumont.
Celebrated by Laharpe. Described.
Visiting her aunt Madame de La Briche in 1802.
cousins Alexandre de Laborde (1773-1842)
and Natalie de Noailles (1774-1835), separated from her husband and later
Duchesse de Mouchy, did the honours at Méréville (between Étampes and
Pithiviers) on the banks of the Juine, built for their father the banker John
Joseph de Laborde, and with a famous eighteenth century garden. Chateaubriand
visited in 1805 and Natalie was enamoured of him.
Introduced Chateaubriand to the Abbé Morellet
She was a 15th century Jewish woman in
grave Chateaubriand visits.
He was a French scullion to General Rochambeau,
and later dancing-master.
He played for the Iroquois. Madelon
Friquet is an old fairground contredanse.
The town is in lower
Chênedollé living there in the summer of 1802.
71-19BC. The Roman Augustan
poet was author of the Eclogues, Georgics, and Aeneid, the epic of Aeneas of Troy and the founding of
Chateaubriand quotes Aeneid I.630 ‘Non ignara mali
miseris succurrere disco’
words spoken by Dido of Carthage to the shipwrecked Aeneas, i.e. ‘Not being unknown to evil, I’ve learned to
aid the unhappy.’
Chateaubriand quotes Aeneid II.21. ‘est in conspectus Tenedos: Tenedos is in sight’, i.e. the
island of Tenedos was visible from Troy.
Chateaubriand refers to Book IV of the Aeneid,
which describes the love of Dido for Aeneas.
Chateaubriand perhaps misquotes or
mingles two quotations. ‘Macte nova
virtute puer, sic itur ad astra’: Blessings
on your fresh courage boy, such is the path to the stars’ is from Aeneid IX 640-641. ‘Macte animo, iuvenis!’
appears in Statius, Silvae V.
A love poet in depicting Dido.
Chateaubriand quotes Aeneid
III:10-11. ‘Litora cum patriae lacrimans
portusque relinquo, et campos ubi Troia fuit: I left my native shore with
tears, the harbour and the fields where
For the souls on the banks of Lethe see Aeneid
For the correct quote ‘aequora tuta
silent’ see Aeneid I.
see Aeneid V:615 ‘Pontum aspectebant flentes: they gazed at
the sea, in tears.’
Chateaubriand quotes from Aeneid
III:302-303 where Andromache makes offering to Hector’s Ashes by a false,
second river Simois (a river
of Troy), in Epirus.
Chateaubriand quotes from Aeneid VI:269.
Chateaubriand quotes Aeneid IX: 212
Virgil is portrayed as Dante’s Guide through
the Inferno and Purgatorio in the Divine
Chateaubriand quotes from Aeneid
I:353-354. The image of Dido’s murdered
husband, Sycheus, appears to her in a dream.
The Georgics translated by the Abbé Delille (1770).
Chateaubriand quotes from Aeneid
Chateaubriand refers to the famous passages from Aeneid
Book VI where Aeneas has to pluck a golden bough in order to enter the
underworld. (The Golden Bough is the
title of the monumental work on mythology written by James Frazer.)
Chateaubriand refers to Aeneid
I:450-493 where Aeneas is amazed by frescoes of his own history in the
Temple of Juno.
Possibly a reference to Aeneid V:320,
proximus huic, longo sed proximus
intervallo. A quotation follows from
A festival celebrating him mentioned.
The quotation is from lines 144-145 of Maffeo Vegio’s (1407-1458)
attempt to continue Virgil’s Aeneid, in 1428. (The first attempt was
made by Pier Candido Decembrio, in 1419, but Decembrio abandoned the effort
after only 89 lines.) Sometimes called the ‘thirteenth book of the Aeneid,’
Vegio’s Supplementum regularly appeared in fifteenth and
sixteenth-century editions of Virgil’s works, and elicited commentaries, first
from Jodocus Badius Ascensius (1501) and later from Nicolaus Erythraeus
(1538-39). A Scots translation, by Bishop Gavin Douglas (1513) was published in
1553, and an English translation in 1584, by the physician Thomas Twyne.
Lake Garda is exposed to sudden and violent winds, which
Virgil alludes to in Georgics ii:160:
fluctihus et fremitu assurgens, Benace,
Adapted from the words spoken to Hercules in Aeneid VIII:296, indicating Cerberus
the watchdog of the Underworld.
26:Sec1 Aeneid X:174. ‘Island
generous in those inexhaustible metals the Chalybes forge.’
See Aeneid XI:547-563, where Metabus
hurls his daughter Camilla across the river Ausenus tied to his spear shaft.
The quotation is from Aeneid
VI:256-257, where Aeneas prepares to descend into the Underworld.
The quotation is from Aeneid IV:23,
reference is to Georgics II:146-7.
The greatness of his writing.
BkXXX:Chap13:Sec1 See Eclogue VI.
See Aeneid VII:27.
See Aeneid II:428.
See Georgics III:474-566.
See Georgics IV:514.
See Aeneid VI:893-896 for the ivory
gate that allows illusory dreams to escape to the world above, as opposed to
the gate of horn whose dreams prove true. See also Homer Odyssey
Virgil died of fever after returning from a voyage to Greece.
BkXL:Chap1:Sec1 He was
born near Mantua.
The Aeneid is incomplete, and Virgil
was so dissatisfied that he requested the remaining manuscript be destroyed.
She was the muse of Bernardin.
d 449BC. A Roman virgin, she was killed by her
father, Virginius, to save her from Appius Claudius, one of the Roman
A mid-Atlantic coastal state, it was one of the
23 original colonies, named after Elizabeth I of
Virgin Queen. It was the site of the first permanent English settlement in the
World by the Virginia Company in 1607. It provided
many leaders for the American Revolution becoming a state in 1788. Four of the
first five Presidents were Virginians.
BkVI:Chap6:Sec1 Chateaubriand’s ship becalmed off the coast.
Maid-servant to Lucile.
1803-1880. He was Commissioner of Antiquities
Rome in 1829.
He directed Chateaubriand’s excavations at
The most popularly worshipped form of God
in Hinduism. Within the Vaishnava tradition he is viewed as the Ultimate
Reality or Supreme God (similarly to Shiva within Shaivism).
BkXXXIV:Chap15:Sec1 With Vishnu representing Cosmic Time, Yama as
an incarnation or ‘son’ of Vishnu represents Mortal Time and Death. In this
sense Yama (the First Ancestor) is Vishnu’s eldest son, and time and death
carried off Bonaparte as they did the plague victims. Yama is elsewhere
regarded as the first man and the first to die, and as the son of Surya, the
sun, in turn an incarnation of Vishnu, so again Yama is an eldest son of
The Vistula (Polish: Wisła)
is the longest river in Poland at 678 miles and drains an area of 75,000 sq.
miles. Its source is in the south of the country, at Barania Góra (1220 m high)
in the Beskidy Mountains. It flows over the Polish plains, passing several cities
along its way, including Kraków, Warsaw and Gdańsk. It empties into the Vistula
Lagoon and Gdańsk Bay of the Baltic Sea.
troops were at the river in December 1806.
The Russian presence there in 1828.
Vitebsk is situated in north-East of the Belarus
in the land of glacier lakes on the picturesque banks of the three rivers: the Zakhodnyaya Dzvina river, the Vitba and the Luchesa river. It became
part of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania in 1320 and its citizens obtained merchant
privileges and self-government. In 1597 Vitebsk was granted the Magdeburg Code of Law.
It became part of the Russian Empire in 1772.
was there from 29th July-12th August
1812, during the invasion of Russia.
battle of 28th July 1812
when Napoleon’s troops defeated Barclay
Aulus, Roman Emperor
15-69AD. Roman emperor (AD 69),
he was made commander of the legions on the lower Rhine by Galba in
AD 68. On Galba’s death
he was proclaimed emperor at Colonia Agrippina (now
Cologne). The generals who favoured him defeated his
rival, Otho, in Italy, and Vitellius was briefly the emperor. He
distinguished himself by extravagance, debauchery, and general incompetence.
When his rival in the East, Vespasian, moved into
Italy, Vitellius quickly lost his supporters. His
troops were defeated at Cremona, and Vitellius fought with Vespasian’s brother, Flavius Sabinus, in
Rome. When Vespasian’s troops entered
Rome, Vitellius was captured while in hiding and
An ancient city and comune in the Lazio region of central Italy, the
capital of the province of Viterbo. It is approximately 60 miles north of Rome
on the Via Cassia, and it is surrounded by the Monti Cimini and Monti Volsini. When
the Popes had difficulty asserting their authority over Rome, Viterbo became
their favourite residence, beginning with Pope Eugene III (1145-1146)
BkXXX:Chap2:Sec1 Clement IV buried there.
A town in Brittany, one of the best preserved medieval towns in
France, on the left bank of the Vilaine,
twenty-four miles east of Rennes.
Mentioned. Madame de Sevigné’s château
of Rochers was nearby.
Eugène-François-Auguste Arnaud, Baron de
1774-1854. Made a Baron by Napoleon in 1812,
he played a key role in the Bourbon return, acting as a go-between with
Talleyrand from April 1814.
BkXXV:Chap9:Sec1 Involved with the
BkXXXII:Chap6:Sec1 At Saint-Cloud on
the 29th of July 1830.
BkXXXII:Chap7:Sec1 Rebuffed in
Thérésia de Follevie, Baronne de
She was the adopted daughter of the Duchesse de Bouillon. She was
arrested for conspiracy on the 4th of April 1815, and transferred to Vincennes, where Napoleon was tempted to have her
shot. But Fouché playing his double game protected her, and sent her to
Ghent on a mission.
In Ghent at the start of May 1815.
The town is on the River Marne north-east of Troyes.
Napoleon fighting there in 1814.
d. 1745. A French officer killed at
Vittoria (Vitoria), Spain
Vitoria-Gasteiz, the capital city of the province of Álava and of the Basque
Country was founded in 1181 by the King of Navarre, Sancho VI the Wise as
‘Nueva Victoria’ on the hill where the old settlement of Gasteiz was located.
In 1200, Vitoria passed to the Kingdom of Castile, taken by the troops of Alfonso
VIII. The city was progressively enlarged and in 1431 was granted the title of
‘City’ by King Juan II of Castile. The Battle
of Vitoria was fought on June 21, 1813 during the Peninsular War,
between 78,000 British, Portuguese and Spanish troops, with 96 guns, under the Marquis
of Wellington, and 58,000 French with
153 guns under King Joseph
Bonaparte and Marshal Jourdan.
Joseph defeated there.
for Wintzingerode, Ferdinand Ferdinandovich, Baron
1770-1818. A soldier and diplomat,
he initially fought the French as an officer for Austria
before joining Tsar Alexander’s
staff. With his knowledge of the Austrian army he proved invaluable in his new
position and, as the Tsar planned war with France,
was sent back to Vienna to
coordinate preparations. He fought at Austerlitz,
but was captured by the French, and when released earned the Tsar’s displeasure
by loudly opposing the Treaty of Tilsit
Recalled to face the French invasion in 1812, Wintzingerode was again captured
but was rescued while on his way to Paris.
In 1813, he led a Russian corps with the Swedish army and fought at Leipzig. Advancing into France
he was beaten by Napoleon, the French emperor’s second-last victory, at St
Brought before Napoleon at Borowsk.
An attaché charged with carrying Chateaubriand’s despatch of
of January 1829 to
Laz Ahmet Pasha, Grand Vizier
1811-1812, led the Ottoman armies during the 1811 campaign on the Danube.
Inexperienced but energetic, he forced Kutuzov
back across the big river and re-captured Silistria and Nikopol.
He defeated Kutuzov again at Rustchuk, but allowed his army to become trapped
on the north bank. Ahmed managed to extract an armistice from the Russians,
however, and rescued his army from disaster.
The Turkish Grand Vizier from October 26th 1828 to January 1829 was Darendeli Topal
İzzet Mehmed Pasha (1st time), he was followed by Reşid Mehmed Pasha
until February 17th 1833.
Vöcklabruck’s name derives from
the River Vöckla which runs through the town lying between Salzburg
Chateaubriand there in 1833.
River, the largest river system of Europe
rises northwest of Moscow in the
Valday Hills and flows 2,300 miles southeast before emptying into the Caspian
Sea near the city of Astrakhan.
Constantin-François de Chasseboeuf
scholar, he travelled in Egypt
and Syria in
the 1780s and wrote an account of his journey, Voyage en Syrie et en Égypte
(1787); notable for its exact descriptions, which was useful to Napoleon during
his Egyptian campaign. Volney served as deputy (1789) to the States-General, as
Secretary (1790) of the National Assembly, and later, after spending some time
in the United States, as senator under Napoleon, who made him a count in 1808;
he was also a member of the chamber of peers under Louis XVIII. His principal work, Les
Ruines; ou, Méditation sur les révolutions des empires (1791), which
popularized religious scepticism, was influential not only in France but also
in England and the United States; it went through many translations and
editions and stimulated much controversy. His writings also include works on
the United States, on ancient history, and on Arabic.
Dissuaded Napoleon from emigrating in
1694-1778. Poet, dramatist, philosopher, his work encapsulated the Age
of Enlightenment. He fought against injustice and intolerance in a series of
sparkling works. Briefly imprisoned in the Bastille (1717) he went into exile
in England (1726-1729). After the publication of his Lettres philosophiques (1734) which
preached toleration he fled to Cirey in Champagne, where he lived with his mistress, Madame de
Châtelet. He subsequently lived in Germany (1750-1753) after being earlier befriended
by Frederick the Great, and in
Switzerland (from 1754) chiefly at Ferney near
Geneva. His writings covering history, science,
philosophy and verse drama, include the satirical fable Candide (1759), Traité de la
tolérance (1763), and the Dictionnaire
The legend of Voltaire’s birth at Châtenay
is here repeated by Chateaubriand. It was affirmed by Condorcet in 1789, and
repeated by Michaud in 1827. Since then doubt has been cast on the information,
and Paris is suggested as the correct birthplace.
He attacked and mocked the Abbé Trublet.
BkIV:Chap1:Sec2 BkXXVI:Chap1:Sec1 Chateaubriand
viewed his room in Potsdam, in 1821.
His age, the age of Voltaire.
His niece the Marquise de Villette.
Chateaubriand adapts lines from Voltaire’s Épître
a Philis: ‘Ah! Madame, que votre
quotes from the Henriade, Canto I:
240-241, where the hermit of Jersey
prophesies the future kingship of Henri
reference to his tale L’homme aux
quarante écus of 1768.
Fontanes was in
Paris by 1778 when Voltaire died.
Chateaubriand suggests that Byron
was strongly influenced by him.
Voltaire’s followers, seen as opposed to established religion.
reference to Voltaire’s epithet for superstition, in which he classed
traditional and organised religion, of l’infâme,
the infamy…as in his frequently used motto: Ecrasez
He gave his name to a literary age.
quotation is from Mérope (I:3)
Voltaire mocked Baron Neuhof in Chapter 26
impiety as perceived by Chateaubriand.
A reference to the opening of the Henriade:
‘I sing of the heroes who ruled French earth, both by right of conquest and
right of birth.’
His association with
The reference is to his letter from Berlin to Madame Denis,
of 26th December 1750.
As a model of 18th century style.
dispute in 1759 with De Brosses.
clarity of style.
Voltaire’s life at Ferney.
The quotation is from a brief treatise of 1749 on French poetry.
See Mahomet ActI:Scene2, line 110.
His disinterest in Nature.
His Funeral oration for the officers dead
in the War of 1741 published in 1749.
See the last lines of Voltaire’s Lines to
Madame du Châtelet, which is a lament for lost youth.
See Candide XXV of which what follows
is an amusing summary.
Author of the Henriade. A reference
to his atheism.
See Candide: XXVI
Chateaubriand uses Welches,
Voltaire’s mocking term for his ‘barbarous’ compatriots. The word Welsh in English derives from the Old
English word meaning foreigners or Celts.
The intellectual leader of his age.
The province of extreme Western
Austria, borders on Switzerland,
Mistress of Frederick-William
Mentioned in Mirabeau’s Secret History.